To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The authors report on pulsed laser powder bed fusion fabrication of nitinol (NiTi) shape memory materials. The authors first performed single-track laser parameter sweeps to assess melt pool stability and determine energy parameters and hatch spacing for larger builds. The authors then assessed the melt pool chemistry as a function of laser energy density and build plate composition. Brittle intermetallics were found to form at the part/build plate interface for both N200 and Ti-6-4 substrates. The intermetallic formation was reduced by building on a 50Ni–50Ti substrate, but delamination still occurred due to thermal stresses upon cooling. The authors were able to overcome delamination on all substrates and fabricate macroscopic parts by building a lattice support structure, which is both compliant and controls heat transfer into the build plate. This approach will enable scalable fabrication of complex NiTi parts.
One of the key aims of the OSCAR project (Optical Sensors based on CARbon-materials)—in the framework of the REXUS/BEXUS program—was to explore the use of organic-based solar cells for (aero)space applications through the in-flight investigation of devices’ performance during a stratospheric balloon flight. Next to the in-flight experiments, complementary lab stability assessment tests were performed. In this contribution, both the in-flight and lab experimental methodology and the corresponding technical aspects will be discussed in detail. Furthermore, attention will be paid to the issues of packaging and radiation. The importance of the OSCAR-balloon experiment is not only that it has demonstrated for the first time the use of organic-based solar cells in (aero)space conditions but also that it can be considered as the pioneering start of specific stability assessment methodologies for organic-based solar cells for (aero)space applications.
A biologist will often turn to computer programming in situations where the amount or the complexity of data is too much to be sensibly handled by spreadsheets, and where no other, more specialised, software exists. Often only a relatively simple program needs to be written to get something useful from biological data, which would otherwise not be available. For biologists, the task of writing a computer program can sometimes seem like a significant barrier, but once the basic programming skills are learned then many possibilities are enabled. This chapter offers an introduction to the Python language and gives some concrete examples of programs that may be useful in molecular biology. However, there is not space to cover all aspects of the language and many of its finer details. For this we recommend further reading, but nonetheless hope this chapter serves to illustrate the basics and to show what is possible.
Python is one of the most popular programming languages and is becoming an increasingly attractive option for the biologist. It is a high-level, general-purpose language that is well supported and relatively easy to learn; indeed it is now taught in mainstream UK schools. Also, it has a large number of external modules, including many relating to mathematics, science and biology. Python is easy to install, if it isn't already installed as standard, and runs on almost all kinds of computer system. In this chapter we will show some of the features and capabilities of Python 3 and then apply this to several example programs to illustrate the sort of things that can be achieved for molecular biology. Python version 2, should you need to work with that instead, is very, very similar and most programs are easily transferred (e.g. using the conversion program 2to3 supplied with Python), although the two versions are not 100% compatible.
Even if you don't intend to use Python in the long-run or for all programming work, it nonetheless serves as a good starting point to learn some of the major principles of many modern computing languages. Python is a high-level language like Perl, Matlab and R, which is directly interpreted when a program is run; there is no distinct compilation step.
Burnt mounds, or fulachtaí fiadh as they are known in Ireland, are probably the most common prehistoric site type in Ireland and Britain. Typically Middle–Late Bronze Age in age (although both earlier and later examples are known), they are artefact-poor and rarely associated with settlements. The function of these sites has been much debated with the most commonly cited uses being for cooking, as steam baths or saunas, for brewing, tanning, or textile processing. A number of major infrastructural development schemes in Ireland in the years 2002–2007 revealed remarkable numbers of these mounds often associated with wood-lined troughs, many of which were extremely well-preserved. This afforded an opportunity to investigate them as landscape features using environmental techniques – specifically plant macrofossils and charcoal, pollen, beetles, and multi-element analyses. This paper summarises the results from eight sites from Ireland and compares them with burnt mound sites in Great Britain. The fulachtaí fiadh which are generally in clusters, are all groundwater-fed by springs, along floodplains and at the bases of slopes. The sites are associated with the clearance of wet woodland for fuel; most had evidence of nearby agriculture and all revealed low levels of grazing. Multi-element analysis at two sites revealed elevated heavy metal concentrations suggesting that off-site soil, ash or urine had been used in the trough. Overall the evidence suggests that the most likely function for these sites is textile production involving both cleaning and/or dyeing of wool and/or natural plant fibres and as a functionally related activity to hide cleaning and tanning. Whilst further research is clearly needed to confirm if fulachtaí fiadh are part of the ‘textile revolution’ we should also recognise their important role in the rapid deforestation of the wetter parts of primary woodland and the expansion of agriculture into marginal areas during the Irish and British Bronze Ages.
Psychological interventions may be beneficial in bipolar disorder.
To evaluate the efficacy of psychological interventions for adults with
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was conducted.
Outcomes were meta-analysed using RevMan and confidence assessed using
the GRADE method.
We included 55 trials with 6010 participants. Moderate-quality evidence
associated individual psychological interventions with reduced relapses
at post-treatment (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.92) and
follow-up (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.87), and collaborative care with a
reduction in hospital admissions (RR =0.68, 95% CI 0.49–0.94).
Low-quality evidence associated group interventions with fewer depression
relapses at post-treatment and follow-up, and family psychoeducation with
reduced symptoms of depression and mania.
There is evidence that psychological interventions are effective for
people with bipolar disorder. Much of the evidence was of low or very low
quality thereby limiting our conclusions. Further research should
identify the most effective (and cost-effective) interventions for each
phase of this disorder.