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In this contribution, we devoted ourselves to fabricating aggregation-induced emission (AIE) activity copolymers via one-pot combination of RAFT polymerization and Biginelli reaction for the first time. When the feeding ratio of TPB was 33.5%, the molar fraction of TPB was, respectively, about 14.2 and 22.5% in PEG-PTE1 copolymers by two-step strategy and PEG-PTE2 copolymers by one-pot strategy with the similar structure. The Mn of PEG-PTE1 increased to 59,300 from 52,800 of PEG-AE presoma with narrow PDI, which was more than Mn of PEG-PTE2 with 52,300. As compared with PEG-PTE2, when the feeding ratio of TPB was 48.6%, the molar fraction of TPB increased to 32.6% in PEG-PTE3. In aqueous solution, the as-obtained PEG-PTE2 copolymers can self-assemble into fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) with 100–180 nm spherical morphology, the maximal emission peak of which presented at 460 nm with the obvious AIE phenomenon. Moreover, due to the low toxicity and excellent cell dyeing behavior, the as-prepared PEG-PTE2 copolymers displayed great potential for biomedical applications.
The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) is globally distributed in late Cambrian sedimentary records but controversially heterogeneous in its magnitudes. Here we use multiple geochemical proxies to investigate the late Cambrian carbonates from the Tangwangzhai section in North China, which were deposited in a shallow coastal environment with three depositional sequences (S1–S3). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). The REE + Y and trace element records are consistent with the depositional condition and indicate that terrigenous influence was more significant in the TST than HST. δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS are low in the TST relative to HST, consistent with the scenario that terrigenous inputs were profoundly aggressive to seawater by introducing 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted materials. Within the TST of S2, the SPICE excursion shows a scaled-down δ13Ccarb positive shift (∼1.7 ‰) relative to its general records (∼4–6 ‰); the corresponding δ34SCAS show no positive excursion. This ‘atypical’ SPICE record is attributed to enhanced 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted terrigenous influence during the TST, which would reduce the amplitude of δ13Ccarb excursion, and even obscure δ34SCAS excursion. Meanwhile the subaerial unconformity at the base of TST would also cause a partially missing and a ‘snapshot’ preservation. Our study confirms significant local influence to the SPICE records, and further supports the heterogeneity and low sulphate concentrations of the late Cambrian seawater, because of which the SPICE records may be vulnerable to specific depositional conditions (e.g. sea-level, terrigenous input).
A series of metal oxides (MnFeOx, MnCrOx, MnTiOx, and MnFeTiOx) supported on attapulgite (ATP) were synthesized by coprecipitation for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. Then, they were subjected to appropriate characterizations for their properties (XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, etc.). The catalytic activity of MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst was over 95% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between of 175 and 300 °C, and 88% N2 selectivity. Moreover, MnFeTiOx/ATP presented excellent potassium resistance relative to the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst, and its denitration performance was significantly improved. The NOx conversion rate could be restored to nearly 90% at 210 °C after removing potassium via washing of K–MnFeTiOx/ATP. In addition, the MnFeTiOx/ATP showed better SO2 resistance and stability than the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst. Therefore, the MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst has been proved to have broad prospects in NH3-SCR.
The effect of zirconium alloying on the crystal structures and mechanical properties of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is investigated in this study using the first-principles method. Firstly, we investigate the cell volumes, lattice constants, and formation energies of binary W1−xZrx (x = 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.1875, 0.25, and 0.5) alloys. It is shown that binary tungsten–zirconium alloys maintain BCC structures. When the concentration of zirconium atoms is lower than 12.5%, the structures of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys can be thermodynamically stable. The elastic constants of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys are calculated based on the optimized atomic lattice. Then, the elastic modulus and other mechanical parameters are deduced according to the relevant formulas. It is shown that the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloy decreases with an increasing concentration of zirconium atoms, which is lower than the mechanical strength of pure tungsten metal. However, the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is higher than that of pure zirconium metal. In addition, zirconium alloying can be effective in improving the ductility of pure tungsten metal.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
Globally, the prevalence of childhood obesity has substantially increased at an alarming rate. This study investigated associations between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in 3- to 6-year-old children. Recruited children were from four prefecture-level cities in Eastern China. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. Individual dietary patterns were assessed by a comprehensive self-administered FFQ using thirty-five food items. Using factor analysis two dietary patterns were derived: the traditional Chinese pattern was characterised by high consumption of cereals, vegetables and fresh juices while the modern pattern was characterised by high consumption of Western fast food, Chinese fast food, sweets/sugary foods and carbonated beverages. The associations of dietary patterns with overweight/obesity were evaluated by logistic regression models. Data of 8900 preschool children from thirty-five kindergartens recruited from March to June 2015 were used in the final analysis. Adherence to the modern dietary pattern was positively associated with children's age while adherence to the traditional dietary pattern was positively associated with maternal education; these associations were statistically significant. After adjustment, we found that being in the highest tertile of any identified dietary patterns was not significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary patterns are not associated with overweight/obesity in Chinese preschool children. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between dietary patterns and childhood obesity.
An all-fiberized high-average-power narrow linewidth ns pulsed laser with linear polarization is demonstrated. The laser system utilizes a typical master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is effectively suppressed due to the short fiber length and large mode area in the main amplifier, combined with the narrow pulse duration smaller than the phonon lifetime of SBS effect. A maximal output power of 466 W is obtained with a narrow linewidth of
203.6 MHz, and the corresponding slope efficiency is
80.3%. The pulse duration is condensed to be
4 ns after the amplification, corresponding to the peak power of 8.8 kW and the pulse energy of
. Near-diffraction-limited beam quality with an
factor of 1.32 is obtained at the output power of 442 W and the mode instability (MI) is observed at the maximal output power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power of the all-fiberized narrow linewidth ns pulsed fiber laser with linear polarization and high beam quality, which is a promising source for the nonlinear frequency conversion, laser lidar, and so on.
The solute equilibrium partition coefficients (ki) of C, Si, Mn, P, and S in high sulfur steel during the solidification process were investigated by the thermodynamic calculation. The effect of MnS precipitation on ki was explored. The results showed that the precipitation of MnS inclusion would influence the concentrations of solutes Mn and S, leading to the changing of ki. Due to the precipitation of MnS, the kC and kS decreased first and then increased with temperature decreasing, while kSi, kMn, and kP changed monotonously. The impacts of solidification temperature on kSi and kMn were greater than that on kC, kS, and kP. With the increase of S content, kC, kSi, and kP increased while kMn and kS decreased. Whereas, an opposite effect was found with the increase of Mn content. The order of influence extent by S and Mn contents was kSi > kS > kMn > kC > kP.
This paper presents a simple and highly visual approach for the type synthesis of a family of overconstrained parallel mechanisms that have one translational and two rotational movement capabilities. It considers, especially, mechanisms offering the accuracy and dynamic response needed for machining applications. This family features a spatial limb plus a member of a class of planar symmetrical linkages, the latter connected by a revolute joint either to the machine frame at its base link or to the platform at its output link. Criteria for selecting suitable structures from among numerous candidates are proposed by considering the realistic practical requirements for reconfigurability, movement capability, rational component design and so on. It concludes that a few can simultaneously fulfil the proposed criteria, even though a variety of structures have been presented in the literature. Exploitation of the proposed structures and evaluation criteria then leads to a novel five degrees of freedom hybrid module named TriMule. A significant potential advantage of the TriMule over the Tricept arises because all the joints connecting the base link and the machine frame can be integrated into one single, compact part, leading to a lightweight, cost effective and flexible design particularly suitable for configuring various robotized manufacturing cells.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
A new helminthomorph millipede, Sinosoma luopingense new genus new species, from the Triassic Luoping biota of China, has 39 body segments, metazonites with lateral swellings that bear a pair of posterolateral pits (?insertion pits for spine bases), and sternites that are unfused to the pleurotergites. This millipede shares a number of characters with nematophoran diplopods, but lacks the prominent dorsal suture characteristic of that order. Other “millipede” material from the biota is more problematic. Millipedes are a rare part of the Luoping biota, which is composed mainly of marine and near-shore organisms. Occurrences of fossil millipedes are exceedingly rare in Triassic rocks worldwide, comprising specimens from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and consisting of juliform millipedes and millipedes that are either nematophorans or forms very similar to nematophorans.
Sexual offenses cause harm to the victims’ physical and psychological functions. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims. Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study to assess the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims and to further evaluate the respective risk estimates on the basis of diagnostic patterns. A total of 81 sexual assault victims and 324 controls matched by sex, age and residential area were included. The mean age of the sexual assault victims was 18.39 (sd 10.23) years, and 93.83% (76/81) of the sample were females. Sexual assault victims had a higher incidence density of psychiatric disorders than did the control group (9.2% per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–33.2% per year v. 1.1% per year, 95% CI .4–15.7% per year; p=.037). Sexual assault was an independent risk factor for incident psychiatric disorders, with an incidence rate ratio of 3.40 (95% CI 1.04–26.41) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Assessment of psychiatric disorders should be implemented in the integrative care of sexual assault victims. Physicians providing clinical care to the sexual assault victims should receive more all-round training to understand and manage this type of violence.
A 9.24 m sediment core, GA-2, was collected on the coastal platform of Grande Valley, a relatively narrow and shallow fjord in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The sediment was formed between 6600 and 2000 cal. yr bp according to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of five bulk sediment samples. The comprehensive proxy indicators (grain size, loss on ignition at 550°C, magnetic susceptibility, elements) were analysed, and three separate depositional environments and an alternating climate change pattern were identified. Grande Valley experienced a warm marine environment between 6600 and 5800 cal. yr bp, a minor cooling between 5800 and 4800 cal. yr bp, the transition from cool to warm during 4800–4400 cal. yr bp, a mid-Holocene climatic optimum between 4400 and 2700 cal. yr bp, and the onset of the Neoglacial at 2700 cal. yr bp. This study reconstructed the environmental history of Grande Valley during the mid–late Holocene, provides the missing marine record of historical climate for the western coast of Fildes Peninsula and lays the foundation for further study of the climate and environment changes therein. Our finding that the sea level was c. 12 m a.m.s.l. at 2000 cal. yr bp allows for detailed reconstruction of Holocene sea level variations.
To investigate the solute transport and redistribution in the slab continuous casting processes of high sulfur steel, a three-dimensional model coupling turbulent flow, heat and solute transportation was developed. And then a thermodynamic model for MnS precipitation was established to study the MnS precipitation and distribution in strand on a macroscale and its effect on solute macrosegregation was also explored. The results showed that the temperature and solutes concentration were the main factors for the precipitation of MnS. The effect of temperature was significant when the solid fraction was greater than 0.8. Due to the precipitation of MnS, the segregation ratio of solutes Mn and S on the center line declined from 1.05–1.15 to 0.97–1.01 and from 1.2–1.45 to 1.00–1.08, respectively. And the solute concentration of Mn and S declined and distributed more uniformly in the strand, and the macrosegregation of Mn and S was also suppressed greatly.
For underwater vehicle navigation sensors, the output signal periods are different and time-varying. This would result in the decline of precision, and even wrong results. To deal with the problem, this paper puts forward a multi-sensor, adjustable-period integrated navigation method based on multi-stage signal trigger. This method considers the valid signals of a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) as the trigger signals of a Dead-Reckoning (DR) navigation program. It also considers the valid signals of an acoustic positioning sensor as the trigger signals of the integrated navigation program. In this method, it can adjust the filtering period in real time. According to the time label of signals, this method actualises the time-space alignment of sensors. Then it conducts DR navigation and integrated navigation. The method can not only utilise the valid signals of each sensor sufficiently but also fuses the data based on time-space alignment efficiently. Sea trial data shows that when the output signal periods are certain, navigation precision of the method in this paper is better than a non-adjustable-period filtering method. Moreover, in poor conditions, it can also attain a high precision.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
In this paper, a novel microstrip bandpass filter is proposed to enhance sideband selectivity, suppress harmonic frequency up to three-order as well as to keep a miniaturized size for frequency synthesizer application. The filter is constructed by four λ/4 folded stepped-impedance resonators (FSIRs) and two λ/2 stepped-impedance resonators at input/output ports to create three pairs of coupling paths and then to produce three cross-coupling transmission zeros (TZs) as well as to achieve a size miniaturization with 96% reduction compared with the conventional filter. By adding a common grounded metallized via hole among four λ/4 FSIRs of the filter, additional four mixed electric and magnetic coupling paths are set to generate extra four TZs. With these seven TZs, the proposed filter achieves a good sideband selectivity and harmonic suppression. Finally, the filter is designed, fabricated, and measured, its measured results are in well agreement with its simulated results.
Dietary fat intake is correlated with increased insulin resistance (IR). However, it is unknown whether gene–diet interaction modulates the association. This study estimated heritability of IR measures and the related genetic correlations with fat intake, and tested whether dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related traits in Chinese child twins. We included 622 twins aged 7–15 years (n 311 pairs, 162 monozygotic (MZ), 149 dizygotic (DZ)) from south-eastern China. Dietary factors were measured using FFQ. Structural equation models were fit using Mx statistical package. The intra-class correlation coefficients for all traits related to T2D were higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. Dietary fat and fasting serum insulin (additive genetic correlation (rA) 0·20; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·43), glucose (rA 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·40), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (Homa-IR) (rA 0·22; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·50) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki) (rA −0·22; 95 % CI −0·40, 0·04) showed strong genetic correlations. Heritabilities of dietary fat intake, fasting glucose and insulin were estimated to be 52, 70 and 70 %, respectively. More than 70 % of the phenotypic correlations between dietary fat and insulin, glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index appeared to be mediated by shared genetic influence. Dietary fat significantly modified additive genetic effects on these quantitative traits associated with T2D. Analysis of Chinese twins yielded high estimates of heritability of dietary fat intake and IR. Genetic factors appear to contribute to a high proportion of the variance for both insulin sensitivity and IR. Dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on blood levels of insulin and glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.