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Advanced imaging techniques are enhancing research capacity focussed on the developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and consequently increasing awareness of future health risks across various subareas of DOHaD research themes. Understanding how these advanced imaging techniques in animal models and human population studies can be both additively and synergistically used alongside traditional techniques in DOHaD-focussed laboratories is therefore of great interest. Global experts in advanced imaging techniques congregated at the advanced imaging workshop at the 2019 DOHaD World Congress in Melbourne, Australia. This review summarizes the presentations of new imaging modalities and novel applications to DOHaD research and discussions had by DOHaD researchers that are currently utilizing advanced imaging techniques including MRI, hyperpolarized MRI, ultrasound, and synchrotron-based techniques to aid their DOHaD research focus.
Do increasing, and increasingly diverse, immigration flows lead to declining support for redistributive policy? This concern is pervasive in the literatures on immigration, multiculturalism and redistribution, and in public debate as well. The literature is nevertheless unable to disentangle the degree to which welfare chauvinism is related to (a) immigrant status or (b) ethnic difference. This paper reports on results from a web-based experiment designed to shed light on this issue. Representative samples from the United States, Quebec, and the “Rest-of-Canada” responded to a vignette in which a hypothetical social assistance recipient was presented as some combination of immigrant or not, and Caucasian or not. Results from the randomized manipulation suggest that while ethnic difference matters to welfare attitudes, in these countries it is immigrant status that matters most. These findings are discussed in light of the politics of diversity and recognition, and the capacity of national policies to address inequalities.
Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S. stroma (in particular the tail of female worms) and by sequencing two genetic loci (cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene and a section of ribosomal DNA). Sequences derived from both genetic loci of putative British S. frederici isolates formed a tight clade with sequences from continental worms known to be S. frederici, clearly distinguishing these isolates from S. stroma which formed a tight clade of its own, distinct from clades representative of Syphacia obvelata from Mus and S. muris from Rattus. The data in this paper therefore constitute the first record of S. frederici from British wood mice, and confirm the status of this species as distinct from both S. obvelata and S. stroma.
A decision analysis was performed to assess the risks, costs, and effects of no prophylaxis, oral penicillin, and cephalexin regimens currently being debated for dental patients at risk for late prosthetic joint infection (LPJI). The analysis suggests that there is a very small risk of LPJI (29.3 cases per 106 dental visits), which is outweighed by a greater risk of death with an oral penicillin strategy than with a “no prophylaxis” strategy (2.31:1.93). An oral cephalosporin appears to spare life and limb but does so at an extremely high cost. Over $500,000 must be spent to spare one year of life, while $480,000 needs to be spent to prevent one case of LPJI. Some individual dental patients may still be at a much greater risk for LPJI than others. However, from the evidence to date, routine predental antibiotic prophylaxis for all prosthetic joint patients is a very expensive preventive strategy and is not cost-effective. However, clinical experience suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis may be appropriate in some situations.
The photorefractive and photodiffractive properties of a 2 × 10−3 M, 30μim thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at - 40°C are analyzed by using optical absorption spectroscopy, the Kramers- Kronig transformation and coupled wave theory. Conversion of M to bR generates a dispersion in the refractive index that has a broad negative band from 450 to 540 nm [Δn500nm - -0.0016] and a broad positive band from 590 to 700 nm [Δn605nm - 0.0016]. The large change in refractive index for moderate solute concentration is due to the formation of the protonated Schiff base chromophore in bR which generates a large red shift in the absorption spectrum as well as a large increase in oscillator strength. The integrated diffraction efficiency from 300 - 800nm is dominated by refractive index contributions (ηphase) which are maximum in regions of minimal bR and M absorption. The maximum in the refractive (phase) component occurs at 451 nm (ηphase - 9.7%) whereas the maximum in the absorption component occurs at 575 nm (ηabs - 2.2%). The maximum efficiency of diffraction is observed at ∼440 nm (ηtotal - 10.7%). Adequate diffractive performance for most applications is predicted for write wavelengths in the regions 380 - 420 & 500 - 650 nm and for read wavelengths from 380 to 740 nm.
(1) To test the usefulness of Abell clusters for locating voids
It is well known that Abell clusters are not uniformly distributed in three-dimensional space (e.g. Bahcall and Soneira, 1983). Recently, Batuski and Bums (1985a, b) have suggested that Abell clusters tend to form filamentary structures between which there appear to be large regions (50–200 Mpc across) devoid of bright galaxies. The technique of using Abell clusters as tracers of voids is controversial because the correlation length of Abell clusters is so much larger than the galaxy-galaxy correlation length. However, compared to an all-sky magnitude-limited survey, the technique, if valid, potentially reduces the amount of telescope time required to identify significant voids and map them in redshift space. To investigate this possibility we have undertaken a redshift survey of galaxies in the direction of a nearby and relatively compact candidate void surrounded by a ring of Abell clusters.
(2) To identify a void suitable for more extensive study.
Ultimately we would like to know not only the degree to which voids are empty, but also to what extent those galaxies that may be found within a void differ from those in the surrounding shell. Some theorists (e.g. Dekel and Silk, 1986 and references therein) suggest that as a result of biased galaxy formation, galaxies within a void might be expected to be preferentially younger, fainter, more irregular, more metal-poor and more gas-rich than shell galaxies. The region we selected for study is one which forms part of the Haynes and Giovanelli (1986 and references therein) 21 cm redshift survey. It was chosen, in part, because it is of interest to compare optical results with radio data to determine whether or not the two techniques reveal the same structure.