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Iron deficiency is common in pregnant and lactating women and is associated with reduced cognitive development of the offspring. Since iron affects lipid metabolism, the availability of fatty acids, particularly the polyunsaturated fatty acids required for early neural development, was investigated in the offspring of female rats fed iron-deficient diets during gestation and lactation. Subsequent to the dams giving birth, one group of iron-deficient dams was recuperated by feeding an iron-replete diet. Dams and neonates were killed on postnatal days 1, 3 and 10, and the fatty acid composition of brain and stomach contents was assessed by gas chromatography. Changes in the fatty acid profile on day 3 became more pronounced on day 10 with a decrease in the proportion of saturated fatty acids and a compensatory increase in monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the n-6 family were reduced, but there was no change in the n-3 family. The fatty acid profiles of neonatal brain and stomach contents were similar, suggesting that the change in milk composition may be related to the changes in the neonatal brain. When the dams were fed an iron-sufficient diet at birth, the effects of iron deficiency on the fatty acid composition of lipids in both dam’s milk and neonates’ brains were reduced. This study showed an interaction between maternal iron status and fatty acid composition of the offspring’s brain and suggests that these effects can be reduced by iron repletion of the dam’s diet at birth.
Ketamine has recently become an agent of interest as an acute treatment for severe depression and as the anaesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Subanaesthetic doses result in an acute reduction in depression severity while evidence is equivocal for this antidepressant effect with anaesthetic or adjuvant doses. Recent systematic reviews call for high-quality evidence from further randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
To establish if ketamine as the anaesthetic for ECT results in fewer ECT treatments, improvements in depression severity ratings and less memory impairment than the standard anaesthetic.
Double-blind, parallel-design, RCT of intravenous ketamine (up to 2 mg/kg) with an active comparator, intravenous propofol (up to 2.5 mg/kg), as the anaesthetic for ECT in patients receiving ECT for major depression on an informal basis. (Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2011-000396-14 and clinicalTrials.gov: NCT01306760.)
No significant differences were found on any outcome measure during, at the end of or 1 month following the ECT course.
Ketamine as an anaesthetic does not enhance the efficacy of ECT.
Ground-state OH masers identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl were observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to obtain positions with high accuracy (~1 arcsec). We classified these OH masers into evolved star OH maser sites, star formation OH maser sites, supernova remnant OH maser sites, planetary nebula OH maser sites and unknown maser sites using their accurate positions. Evolved star and star formation OH maser sites in the Galactic Centre region (between Galactic longitudes of −5° to +5° and Galactic latitudes of −2° and +2°) were studied in detail to understand their distributions.
Vast numbers of bronze coins have been, and continue to be, excavated from archaeological sites around the Greco-Roman world. While often of little value from a strictly numismatic point of view, these coins provide invaluable data within their respective stratigraphic contexts and are used to date occupational and architectural phases more precisely than by ceramics alone. Unfortunately, the build-up of corrosion and mineralization on these coins during their centuries of burial often obscures their legends. Rather than employing potentially destructive and time-consuming chemical or mechanical cleaning techniques to reveal these features, commercially available Micro-focus X-Ray CT systems are now sufficiently well developed to reveal original surface features and to permit identification by a trained numismatist without any cleaning at all.
The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during development and characterized with physiological and cellular markers. Seed moisture contents declined to 30%approx. 35 d after pollination (DAP) and remained constant thereafter. At 42 DAP the maximum dry weight was acquired in seeds except those from peduncular segments, whose dry weight accumulation lagged behind. The onset of germinability and desiccation tolerance occurred before the attainment of maximum dry weight, whereas seed performance, as shown by laboratory germination and greenhouse emergence, was largely improved after the completion of seed development. Cell cycle activities (DNA per nucleus and β-tubulin content) ceased by 28 DAP, whereas the degradation of seed chlorophyll continued during the entire maturation period. Seeds from the top fruit and from the peduncular fruit segments were delayed in reaching maximum quality compared with seeds from other positions, and this was correlated with a slower decline of chlorophyll fluorescence.
Cell cycle activity in dry and germinating untreated and treated (soaked in water and subsequently in fungicide) seeds of two sugarbeet cultivars, collected at commercial harvest time (late mature seeds) and about 2 weeks before this (immature seeds), was investigated by flow cytometry, and by immuno-detection of β-tubulin and the B-subunit of the 11 S globulin. Germination capacity and field emergence were tested. With dry seeds of both cultivars, higher G2 / G1 ratios were observed in the radicle tips of late mature seeds, as compared with those from immature seeds. The late mature seeds contained more partly degraded (soluble) B-subunit of 11 S globulin, typical of germinating or primed sugarbeet seeds. Thus events associated with the onset of germination had occurred in the seed lots collected at commercial harvest time. The cytoskeleton protein β-tubulin was not detectable in dry seeds from either harvest. Western blotting revealed an accumulation of β-tubulin during germination and this was faster in the late mature harvested seeds which was correlated with the onset of DNA replication. Soaking enhanced the rate of cell cycle activation during germination as well as vigour, germination capacity, and field emergence. There was positive correlation between the G2 / G1 ratio and the traits examined in laboratory and field tests. It is concluded that a combined analysis of proteins and cell-cycle-related events can be used in understanding and predicting sugarbeet seed quality.
The in-plane residual stresses of single crystal silicon wafers that were coated with filament-evaporated aluminum films have been obtained from measurements of strains produced by shadow Moir interferometry. The aluminum films were deposited as thin film layers over a 8.9cm diameter area on (100) p-type, 10.16cm diameter, 0.05cm thick single crystal silicon wafers, and the stresses were determined by an analysis that accounts for the finite dimensions of the samples. The aluminum film thicknesses varied from 70 to 78Onm. The aluminum films increased the inplane stresses of the wafers by 3 to 15MPa depending on the film thickness.
If one looks back over the half century, or there abouts, of practical aviation, the enormous changes in aircraft and powerplants have been accompanied by an equal metamorphosis in their accessories. As soon as aeroplanes progressed beyond the stage of short hops from skids, the accessories began to develop: in the cockpit, the air speed indicator, the altimeter and the bubble levels; in the structure, the undercarriage and its shock absorbers.
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