To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Evaluate the effect of multijoint functional electrical stimulation (FES) on energy consumption during post-stroke walking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 67-year-old male with chronic stroke was implanted with an 8-channel implanted pulse generator to stimulate flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle. Oxygen consumption was measured with a k2b4 portable pulmonary gas analyzer during walking with and without FES assistance. Data were analyzed during steady state oxygen consumption within the last 2 minutes of a 5 minute walk. Distance and walking speed were also measured. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Electrical stimulation increased walking speed from 0.29 to 0.64 minute/second. Faster walking corresponded with increased oxygen consumption from 10.1 to 14.4 mL O2/kg per minute. Energy cost, consumption as a function of distance, decreased from 3.7 to 2.9 mL O2/kg per minute walking with stimulation compared with without. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These preliminary data suggest improvements in walking speed with FES are accompanied by increased energy consumption and decreased energy cost. Oxygen consumption during FES assisted walking was <50% of the peak for able bodied individuals of similar age; patients may successfully use the system for community ambulation.
Remains of a coelacanth specimen are described from Rhaetian deposits of the Var Department, southeastern France. They comprise the lower part of a branchial apparatus associated with a left lower jaw and a basisphenoid. Osteological features of the angular and basisphenoid and the teeth ornamentation allow the inclusion of the specimen in the mawsoniid family, genus and species indeterminate. Mawsoniids are known in freshwater environments from the Triassic of North America and from the Cretaceous of Western Gondwana and Europe, as well as from Late Jurassic marine environments from Europe. The new discovery here reported represents the first coelacanth from the marine Triassic of France and improves the understanding of the palaeobiogeography of the Mawsoniidae.
Sediments deposited from the Permian–Triassic boundary (~252 Ma) until the end-Smithian (Early Triassic; c. 250.7 Ma) in the Sonoma Foreland Basin show marked thickness variations between its southern (up to c. 250 m thick) and northern (up to c. 550 m thick) parts. This basin formed as a flexural response to the emplacement of the Golconda Allochthon during the Sonoma orogeny. Using a high-resolution backstripping approach, a numerical model and sediment thickness to obtain a quantitative subsidence analysis, we discuss the controlling factor(s) responsible for spatial variations in thickness. We show that sedimentary overload is not sufficient to explain the significant discrepancy observed in the sedimentary record of the basin. We argue that the inherited rheological properties of the basement terranes and spatial heterogeneity of the allochthon are of paramount importance in controlling the subsidence and thickness spatial distribution across the Sonoma Foreland Basin.
In this paper, a unique dataset of improvised explosive device attacks during “The Troubles” in Northern Ireland (NI) is analysed via a Hawkes process model. It is found that this past dependent model is a good fit to improvised explosive device attacks yielding key insights about the nature of terrorism in NI. We also present a novel approach to quantitatively investigate some of the sociological theory surrounding the Provisional Irish Republican Army which challenges previously held assumptions concerning changes seen in the organisation. Finally, we extend our use of the Hawkes process model by considering a multidimensional version which permits both self and mutual-excitations. This allows us to test how the Provisional Irish Republican Army responded to past improvised explosive device attacks on different geographical scales from which we find evidence for the autonomy of the organisation over the six counties of NI and Belfast. By incorporating a second dataset concerning British Security Force (BSF) interventions, the multidimensional model allows us to test counter-terrorism (CT) operations in NI where we find subsequent increases in violence.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
Background: “Stress Control” (SC) has been adopted as a core intervention in step 2 of Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, but contemporary evidence of effectiveness has lagged behind service uptake. Aims: To investigate the acceptability and effectiveness of SC and to explore moderators of outcome. Method: Analysis of acceptability (via attendance rates) and effectiveness (via IAPT minimum dataset). Results: SC was well tolerated with 73.3% of all patients and 75.4% of “clinical cases” attending three or more sessions. Of the 546 “clinical cases” attending SC and not in receipt of other interventions, 37% moved to recovery. Attendance improved outcome; for those patients attending all SC sessions the recovery rate rose to 59.2%. Conclusion: SC appears a well-tolerated and effective intervention that enables large numbers to gain access to treatment in an organizationally efficient manner. Attendance is important in facilitating SC outcomes and research evaluating attendance interventions are needed.
Agitation in dementia is common, persistent and distressing and can lead to care breakdown. Medication is often ineffective and harmful.
To systematically review randomised controlled trial evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions.
We reviewed 33 studies fitting predetermined criteria, assessed their validity and calculated standardised effect sizes (SES).
Person-centred care, communication skills training and adapted dementia care mapping decreased symptomatic and severe agitation in care homes immediately (SES range 0.3–1.8) and for up to 6 months afterwards (SES range 0.2–2.2). Activities and music therapy by protocol (SES range 0.5–0.6) decreased overall agitation and sensory intervention decreased clinically significant agitation immediately. Aromatherapy and light therapy did not demonstrate efficacy.
There are evidence-based strategies for care homes. Future interventions should focus on consistent and long-term implementation through staff training. Further research is needed for people living in their own homes.
Part II of the volume outlines some of the origins, purposes and forms of authority and power associated with liberal constitutions and world orders. The two chapters help illuminate what is ‘old’ and ‘new’ in the emerging new constitutional world order. They illustrate how historical struggles have forged dominant patterns of political authority and are now restructuring the global order. The main themes of Part II involve:
The genealogy of liberal constitutionalism, particularly that of the United States.
How liberal constitutionalism can be understood as a form of insurance on the part of dominant forces against threats to their power, privilege and property, stemming from popular and democratic forces.
The recent global convergence toward constitutional supremacy in light of the rapid spread of democratic politics.
Chapter 5 by Tim Di Muzio suggests that a deeper appreciation of historical struggles over the constitution of liberal political authority helps us to identify the links between what is ‘old’ and what is ‘new’ in the new constitutionalism. In mainstream political science, liberal constitutionalism is often deemed the most desirable framework for promoting material advancement and human freedom while circumscribing arbitrary, unjust and absolute rule. Di Muzio argues, however, that this conventional wisdom disregards how US constitutionalism was developed by a class-based political project that attempted to safeguard and legitimate an empire of liberty for an afl uent minority and forms of domination for the rest. Di Muzio’s genealogical enquiry focuses on key concepts in the political order of the West since at least the seventeenth century, and specifically how US colonial elites understood liberty, property and security during the American Revolutionary War and the subsequent constitutional settlement.
Part IV seeks to explore how the new constitutionalism of disciplinary neo-liberalism has reshaped the global regimes on investment, trade and taxation. It outlines how neo-liberal restructuring of these regimes – despite contradictions and crises – is intensifying in ways that are driven by, and that tend to reinforce, the direct and structural power of capital. The five main themes in Part IV are:
The globalization of capital-exporting legal norms.
The expansion of market-based investment disciplines and agreements.
Challenges for public service provision and environmental regulation in light of these neo-liberal arrangements.
Prospects for the post-global economic crisis political economy of taxation.
Prospects for alternative forms of governance of the investment, trade and tax regimes.
Part V addresses the general question: how far and in what ways has the emergent global extension of neo-liberal market civilization, locked in by new constitutional mechanisms, reconstituted some of our basic socioeconomic and ecological conditions of existence? The contributions explore how restructuring of these conditions amidst ongoing crises has deepened contradictions, inequalities and insecurities, and raised fundamental concerns over social reproduction and ecological sustainability, provoking new patterns of resistance and challenges to disciplinary neo-liberalism. The principal themes of Part V are:
How – in the context of global organic crisis and the intensification of social inequalities – the restructuring of systems of social reproduction is linked to more ‘regressive’ and unjust tax systems in ways that are generating significant constraints on expenditures for health and care, welfare and education (‘fiscal squeeze’), developments that are partly the result of the global extension of new constitutional measures.
How the proliferation of private debt in the United States relates to the erosion of welfare and transformations in social reproduction, and how in response the US legal apparatus has strengthened coercive governance via criminalization and incarceration of debtors.
How, nevertheless, new ‘constitutions’ of the social emerge in complex, variegated and uneven ways through neo-liberalization processes.
How the current global financial crisis impacts on social policy regimes.
How the tension between neo-liberal new constitutionalism and the ethical-normative principles required for sustainable and just ecological governance, especially in light of climate change, is posing urgent threats to humanity.
In preparation for this volume, the following questions were outlined and authors were requested to address some of them in their chapters:
Key questions and issues
How do you define new constitutionalism? How does it relate to the main conceptual and theoretical developments in your discipline or field?
What is old and what is new about constitutionalism/governance/world order in your area or domain of interest?
What are the origins and lineages of new constitutionalism?
What are the main transformations occurring in the global political economy and geopolitics, and what is their relationship to its principal governance arrangements?
How does the new constitutionalism relate to the direct and structural power of capital?
How does the ‘rule of law’ relate to global capitalism and the new constitutionalism?
What material and social forces either support or oppose new constitutionalism and why?
Identify, evaluate and critique those legal, institutional and normative aspects of new constitutionalism that can be associated with mechanisms to extend pro-market and self-regulatory reforms, e.g. through ‘best practices’, norms of ‘good governance’ or ‘global standards’ as well as the institutionalization and extension of private property rights.
How are social and political relations changing, e.g. through redefinitions of the public and private spheres, and how is this related to new constitutionalism?
Globalization from below and prospects for a just new constitutionalism
Part VI seeks to highlight some potential for moving beyond new constitutionalism and to develop alternative or insurgent forms of constitutionalism in order to advance a more just, democratic and progressive world order. The main themes involve:
Constitutionalism as critique or critical perspectives on the new constitutionalism.
The importance of linking the critical approach to ‘globalization-from-below’ scholarship to challenge and transcend the epistemological dominance of neo-liberalism.
The political tensions and ethical contradictions between the constitution of the global political economy and the geopolitical practices and institutions that underpin and extend it.
The need to transform the double standards, geopolitical contradictions and normative inadequacies of the new constitutional global order by means of a ‘just new constitutionalism’, for example as anchored in the ‘radical promise’ of the UN Declaration of Human Rights.
Gavin Anderson in Chapter 17 seeks to demonstrate how critical perspectives can generate new knowledge in constitutional theory. In doing so he draws special attention to the operation of constitutional discourse at two different levels. At one level constitutional discourse develops the foundational procedures governing the exercise of political power. At a second level, ‘over the rules, it plays the crucial role of setting parameters for ‘how politics is contested’ as well as ‘what is deemed politically contestable’. That is, as Anderson notes, ‘constitutional discourse is always more than the rules that it generates or legitimates, performing also a crucial “framing function”’. He argues that constitutionalism as critique allows for reconnecting this framing function of constitutional discourse to the power dynamics that inl uence our ability to imagine alternative, insurgent or, in his words, ‘post-imperial’ forms of constitutionalism.