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To evaluate patterns of water consumption from plain water, beverages and foods among Mexican children and adolescents and to compare actual patterns of total daily water intake with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).
We analysed one 24 h dietary recall from Mexican children and adolescents. We calculated intakes of total daily water and water from foods and from beverages. Actual total water intake per capita was subtracted from the DRI for water to calculate the shortfall.
Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2012.
Mexican children and adolescents (n 6867) aged 1–18 years.
Approximately 73 % of children and adolescents aged 1–18 years reported drinking plain water. Beverages and plain water represented 65·5 % and 26·5 % of total daily water intake, respectively. Among 1–3-year-olds, the top three main sources of water were from foods, plain water and water from plain milk. Among 4–8- and 9–13-year-olds, the main sources were from foods, plain water and agua fresca (fruit water). Among 14–18-year-olds, the main sources of water were plain water, water from foods and soda. A higher proportion of 1–3-year-olds and 4–8-year-olds met the DRI for water (38 % and 29 %, respectively). Among 9–13-year-olds and 14–18-year-olds, 13–19 % of children met the DRI for water.
Total daily water intakes remain below DRI levels in all age groups. Although plain water still contributes the greatest proportion to daily water intake among fluids, caloric beverages are currently major sources of water especially among older children and adolescents.
To evaluate the dietary quality of Mexican adults’ diet, we constructed three dietary quality indices: a cardioprotective index (CPI), a micronutrient adequacy index (MAI) and a dietary diversity index (DDI).
Data were derived from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a national survey representative of the Mexican population with a stratified, multistage, probabilistic sample design. Dietary intake was assessed from an FFQ with 101 different foods and daily nutrient intakes were computed. The CPI evaluated compliance with seven WHO recommendations for the prevention of CVD, the MAI evaluated the intake of six micronutrients based on the estimated average requirements from the US Institute of Medicine and the DDI was constructed based on the consumption of thirty different food groups.
Mexican adults aged 19–59 years old.
We evaluated the diet of 15 675 males and females. Adjusted means and adjusted proportions by age and sex were computed to predict adherence to dietary recommendations. Rural inhabitants, those living in the South and those from the lowest socio-economic status reported a significantly higher CPI (4·5 (se 0·08), 4·3 (se 0·08) and 4·2 (se 0·09), respectively; P < 0·05), but a significantly lower MAI and DDI, compared with urban inhabitants, those from the North and those of upper socio-economic status (P < 0·05).
The constructed diet quality indices identify nutrients and foods whose recommended intakes are not adequately consumed by the population. Given the epidemiological and nutritional transition that Mexico is experiencing, the CPI is the most relevant index and its components should be considered in Mexican dietary guidelines as well as in any food and nutrition programmes developed.
Along with other countries having high and low-to-middle income, Mexico has experienced a substantial change in obesity rates. This rapid growth in obesity prevalence has led to high rates of obesity-related diseases and associated health-care costs.
Micro-simulation is used to project future BMI trends. Additionally thirteen BMI-related diseases and health-care costs are estimated. The results are simulated for three hypothetical scenarios: no BMI reduction and BMI reductions of 1 % and 5 % across the population.
Mexican Health and Nutrition Surveys 1999 and 2000, and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.
In 2010, 32 % of men and 26 % of women were normal weight. By 2050, the proportion of normal weight will decrease to 12 % and 9 % for males and females respectively, and more people will be obese than overweight. It is projected that by 2050 there will be 12 million cumulative incidence cases of diabetes and 8 million cumulative incidence cases of heart disease alone. For the thirteen diseases considered, costs of $US 806 million are estimated for 2010, projected to increase to $US 1·2 billion and $US 1·7 billion in 2030 and 2050 respectively. A 1 % reduction in BMI prevalence could save $US 43 million in health-care costs in 2030 and $US 85 million in 2050.
Obesity rates are leading to a large health and economic burden. The projected numbers are high and Mexico should implement strong action to tackle obesity. Results presented here will be very helpful in planning and implementing policy interventions.
The objective of this paper is to characterise the epidemiological and nutritional transition and their determinants in Mexico.
Age-adjusted standardised mortality rates (SMRs) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), diabetes mellitus and hypertension were calculated for 1980–1998. Changes in the prevalences of overweight and obesity in women and children and of dietary intake from 1988 to 1999 were also used in the analysis. Quantities of food groups purchased by adult equivalent (AE) and food expenditures away from home between 1984 and 1989 were used to assess trends. All information was analysed at the national and regional levels, and by urban and rural areas.
SMR for diabetes, AMI and hypertension increased dramatically parallel to obesity at the national and regional levels. Fat intake in women and the purchase of refined carbohydrates, including soda, also increased.
The results suggest that obesity is playing a role in the increased SMRs of diabetes, AMI and hypertension in Mexico. Total energy dietary intake and food purchase data could not explain the rise in the prevalence of obesity. The increases in fat intake and the purchase of refined carbohydrates may be risk factors for increased mortality. Information on physical activity was not available.
SMRs due to diabetes, hypertension and AMI have increased dramatically in parallel with the prevalence of obesity; therefore actions should be taken for the prevention of obesity. Reliable information about food consumption and physical activity is required to assess their specific roles in the aetiology of obesity.
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