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A credit default swap (CDS) is an exchange of premium payments for a compensation for the occurrence of a credit event. Counterparty risks refer to defaults of parties holding CDS contracts. In this paper we develop a valuation/pricing model for a CDS subject to counterparty risks. Using the Cox–Ingersoll–Ross (CIR) model for interest rate and first arrival times of Poisson processes with variable intensities for the occurrences of credit default and counterparty defaults, we derive a mathematical formulation and make a full theoretical investigation. In addition, we develop a full theory for the corresponding infinite horizon problem and establish its connection with the asymptotic long expiry behaviour of finite horizon problem. Furthermore, we establish a connection between two major frameworks for default times: the structure model approach and the intensity model approach. We show that a solution of the structure model can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of solutions of intensity models. Regarded as an important theoretical development, we remove a constraint typically imposed on the parameters of the CIR model; that is, the well-posedness (existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence of parameters) of the mathematical model holds for any empirically calibrated parameters for the CIR model.
The plasma in the scrape-off layer (SOL) has an important effect on the coupling of the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The high-frequency B-dot (HFB) probes have been installed to investigate the behaviour of ICRF waves on EAST. The fast and slow ICRF wave field amplitudes are measured and a domain parallel wavenumber is deduced. Results of measurements on a test experimental platform and EAST experiments are presented, which include vacuum and plasma situations. In vacuum it is found that field amplitudes increase linearly with ICRF power. Besides, during plasma operation, field amplitudes measured were decreased by an order of magnitude and no linear relation with power was observed. Fast and slow wave power densities fluctuate strongly with plasma density. The experimental results in the laboratory coincide with the simulation results and allow for validating of the measurement method.
Nano-structured thin films have a variety of applications from waveguides, gaseous sensors to piezoelectric devices. Grazing Incidence Small Angle x-ray Scattering images enable classification of such materials. One challenge is to determine structure information from scattering patterns alone. This paper highlights the design of multiple Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to classify nanoparticle orientation in a thin film by learning scattering patterns. The network was trained on several thin films with a success rate of 94%. We demonstrate CNN robustness under different noises as well as demonstrate the potential of our proposed approach as a strategy to decrease scattering pattern analysis time.
Thank you very much for your interest in our paper (Kawada, 2018). First, the patients in our study were from one single medical center, while Bonanni's study was a nationwide multicenter research project. Therefore, we do not think it is appropriate to compare these two studies directly. Regarding the sample size, each of the three groups were eligible for statistical analysis, and it is of course better to pursue the same issue with bigger sample sizes, especially, for FTD and DLB in future studies.
The purpose of this paper was to study the interaction effects of rainfall regime and slope length on runoff and soil loss under different land uses. Event runoff and soil loss in forest, shrub and grass were measured in plots with lengths of 5, 9 and 13m in the Loess Plateau from 2008 to 2016. A total of 59 erosive rainfall events were recorded and classified into three rainfall regimes. Firstly, the results showed that the runoff coefficient was grass>shrub>forest, and soil loss was grass>forest>shrub, but the differences between forest and shrub in runoff and between grass and forest in soil loss did not reach significant levels. Secondly, rainfall regimes had an important effect on runoff and soil loss under different land uses. The lowest runoff coefficients and the highest soil loss in regime 2 were found in shrub and forest land, respectively, which differed from that of regime 1. In total, rainfall regime 1 had the highest runoff coefficient of 0.84–2.06%, followed by regime 3 with 0.33–0.88% and regime 2 with 0.04–0.06%. Soil loss in forest and grass land had a different order of regime 3>regime 1>regime 2. Thirdly, both the runoff coefficient and soil loss decreased with increasing plot length, while the effect of slope length on runoff/soil loss were influenced by land use type and rainfall regimes.
The Beidou System (BDS) started functioning at the end of 2012. The Yaw-Steering (YS) attitude mode for Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites in BDS ensures that the solar panels face the Sun. The orbit radial accuracies for IGSO/MEO satellites are 0·5 m and the User Equivalent Range Errors (UERE) are 1·5 m in YS mode. BDS-2 satellites adopt Orbit-Normal (ON) mode to meet the power supply and thermal control requirements of the satellite during deep Earth eclipse periods. In ON mode, long-term orbit ephemeris accuracy monitoring in the Operational Control System (OCS) of BDS indicates that the orbit accuracies for IGSO/MEOs are reduced to a few hundreds of metres, seriously affecting the positioning accuracy and navigation service capability of the BDS system. Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) is difficult to model in ON mode. Continuous Yaw-Steering (CYS) mode is available for new generation Beidou satellites launched since 2015. The orbit accuracies for these new generation Beidou (BDS-3) satellites were estimated based on BDS monitoring station data and SRP models including ECOM 9/5/3. The evaluation method consisted of four steps, namely, orbit internal consistency analysis, UERE calculation, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data fitting Root Mean Square (RMS) determinations and positioning performance analysis; the data gathering period lasted for more than 60 days and included two CYS periods and one ON period. The experiments showed that the orbit accuracy of the radial component in CYS mode for the BDS-3 satellites degrades by 2 to 3 cm and positioning accuracy degrades only by 1 cm over that in YS mode which is just a small reduction in accuracy compared with the decimetre-level BDS orbit accuracy and the metre-level single point positioning accuracy with BDS pseudorange data. This overcomes declining orbit and positioning accuracy issues in ON mode for BDS-2 satellites. Other results also show that the reliability of BDS has been improved.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
The dissimilar MIG welding of Mg alloy and ultra-high strength steel was investigated. The results indicated that the Mg-steel joints had characteristics of welding-brazing and included weld zone, bond zone, and interface zone. The weld zone with an equiaxed grain structure mainly consisted of α-Mg and α-Mg + β-Mg17Al12 phases when AZ31 and AZ61 filler metals were used respectively. The interface zone presents a double-layer structures: the AlFe3 layer at steel side and the Mg(Fe, Al)O4 + Mg3.1Al0.9 layer at Mg side, and their evolution process has been summarized. The joint strength was improved obviously at the heat input of 1987–2100 J/cm due to eliminating incomplete joining defects and cracks in the interface zone. With AZ61 filler metal, the weld Al content was 6.24%, the joint strength was elevated from 174 MPa for AZ31 filler metal to 201 MPa (83.8% of Mg alloy base metal), which is related to the increased Al promoting the interface reaction.
The current meta-analysis evaluated the association between vitamin B12 intake and blood vitamin B12 level and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. A dose–response analysis was performed with generalized least squares regression, with the relative risk (RR) and 95 % CI as effect values.
The meta-analysis included seventeen studies.
A total of 10 601 patients.
The non-linear dose–response relationship between total vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·690), but the relationship between dietary vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was significant (P<0·001). Every 4·5 μg/d increment in total and dietary vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (total intake: RR=0·963; 95 % CI 0·928, 0·999; dietary intake: RR=0·914; 95 % CI 0·856, 0·977). The inverse association between vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was also significant when vitamin B12 intake was over a dosage threshold, enhancing the non-linear relationship. The non-linear dose–response relationship between blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·219). There was an insignificant association between every 150 pmol/l increment in blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk (RR=1·023; 95 % CI 0·881, 1·187).
Our meta-analysis indicates that evidence supports the use of vitamin B12 for cancer prevention, especially among populations with high-dose vitamin B12 intake, and that the association between CRC risk and total vitamin B12 intake is stronger than between CRC risk and dietary vitamin B12 intake only.
A series of zeolite–zeolite composites were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure in which the mixture of presynthesized ZSM-5 zeolite acts as nutrients for the growth of postsynthesized Y zeolite, and the as-synthesized products are denoted as MFI–FAU. The structural, crystalline, and textural properties of the as-synthesized materials, as well as the references Y, ZSM-5, and a corresponding physical mixture composed of Y and ZSM-5 zeolite, were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia, N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and Thermogravimetry. The results show that the ratio of Y to ZSM-5 in the composite can be adjusted by controlling the hydrothermal treatment time of the second-step synthesis. Steric hindrance provoked by the concurrently growing crystals offers the postsynthesized Y zeolite phase, a relatively smaller size. A hierarchical pores system, which results from the extraction of silicon species from ZSM-5 and the polycrystalline accumulation of Y zeolite, has been created in the zeolite–zeolite composite. Catalytic performances of the zeolite–zeolite composite catalysts as well as the references catalysts were investigated during the catalytic cracking of isopropylbenzene. As compared with the corresponding physical mixture, the composite catalysts display the excellent catalytic performances with a higher conversion of isopropylbenzene as well as a longer catalytic life because of the introduced hierarchical pores system and the formation of special composite structure.
The solid-state phase equilibria of the copper (Cu)–dysprosium (Dy)–titanium (Ti) ternary system at 973 K has been experimentally investigated. The existence of nine binary compounds, Cu4Ti, Cu3Ti2, Cu4Ti3, CuTi, CuTi2, CuTi3, CuDy, Cu2Dy, and Cu5Dy was confirmed. The controversial phase of CuTi3 was found in this work. The temperature range of Cu7Dy was determined to be from 1112 to 1183 K. The phase relations at 973 K are governed by ten ternary phase regions, 21 binary phase regions, and 12 single-phase regions. The solid solubility of Cu in Dy is undetectable. None of the other phase in this system reveals a remarkable homogeneity range at 973 K.
This paper presents a Chinese adaption of the Formal Characteristics of the Behavior-Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), a self-report instrument that evaluates six temperamental scales, based on Strelau’s concept of temperament. A first sample of 626 undergraduates completed the Chinese version of the Regulative Theory of Temperament Questionnaire (RTTQ), which is an initial pool of 381 items. Internal consistency suggests adequate reliability (.66 to .82), and an exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution consistent with the original instrument. A follow-up confirmatory factor analysis revealed good support for the temperament structure with a second sample of students (N = 2.980). Internal consistency and factorial structure were re-examined (Cronbach’s alpha ranged .64 to .85), and test-retest correlations over a two-week period ranged from .82 to .96 with a third sample of adults (N = 2.265). Convergent and discriminant validity was explored in relation to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revision Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC) model dimensions. Results indicate that the Chinese version of the FCB-TI has similar psychometric properties and generally satisfactory reliability and validity.
Using nanoparticulate TiO2 films, the photocatalytic growth of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the AgNO3 aqueous solution has been studied in terms of reduction, nucleation, and coalescence. It was proved that Ag primary particles were formed in a growth time of <1 s after the photocatalysis started. The growth dynamics was found to be critical for isotropic and anisotropic growth of Ag NPs, depending on the AgNO3 concentration and surface properties of TiO2 films. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≤300 mg/L, the isotropic growth dominates the growth dynamic behavior, producing irregularly spherical Ag NPs. In the AgNO3 solutions of ≥400 mg/L, the increased reduction rate promotes the formation of Ag nanoplates in the product. Ostwald ripening and oriented attachment were suggested to be the mechanisms dominating the isotropic and anisotropic growth, respectively. A photocatalytic growth model of Ag NPs was proposed by taking Ag atom and Ag+ ion diffusion into consideration. The plasmonic properties of the Ag–TiO2 films were studied in terms of extinction, surface enhanced Raman scattering, and fluorescence enhancement.
MTiO3 (M = Ca, Ni, and Zn) nanocrystals were prepared via a facile ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route followed by calcination in air. The structures and morphologies of nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that CaTiO3 and NiTiO3 are orthorhombic phase, while the ZnTiO3 is orthorhombic phase. The activity of the CaTiO3 nanocrystals for water splitting into H2 was obviously higher than those of the NiTiO3 and ZnTiO3 nanocrystals, which could be attributed to the more negative conduction band position of CaTiO3 than NiTiO3 and ZnTiO3. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller system-based surface areas of samples are 19.03, 21.13, and 4.17 m2/g for CaTiO3, NiTiO3, and ZnTiO3 nanocrystals, respectively. In addition, the activity of the CaTiO3 nanocrystals increased with increase in the sintering temperature of samples.
Knowledge of peatland initiation, accumulation, and decline or cessation is critical in understanding peatland development and the related carbon source/sink effect. In this study, we investigated the development of three peat profiles along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (ETP) and compared the results with those of our previous work along this transect. Our work showed that the initiation over the northern ETP is later and the slowdown/cessation earlier than in the middle to southern ETP. The timing of optimum peatland formation over the northern ETP lags the Holocene climatic optimum. These spatio-temporal differences are likely to be related to the intensity of Asian summer monsoon. Our work suggests that some peatlands along the ETP transect have returned or are now returning their previously captured carbon to the atmosphere and thus act as carbon sources. Some peatlands still have net accumulation at present, but the rates have been reduced concomitant with the decreasing summer monsoon intensity. We speculate that more of the previously stored carbon in the ETPpeatlands will be re-emitted to the atmosphere if the aridity continues, as might occur under a continuous global-warming scenario.
Sea-ice hazard causes serious harm to aquaculture, marine navigation, offshore oil production and other activities in the Bohai Sea, China. To study the spatial distribution characteristics of sea-ice-hazard risk in Bohai is therefore desirable. The thickness and area of sea ice in the Bohai Sea during the winters (December–March) of 1987–2011 were estimated using data from the NOAA (US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellite. The sea-ice thickness was converted into a sea-ice-hazard index after defining this index, and the different sea-ice-hazard risk grades were classified. The occurrence probability of sea-ice hazard was also calculated using fuzzy risk theory, and the spatial distribution characteristics of sea-ice-hazard risk in the Bohai Sea were studied. The results show that the sea-ice-hazard risk for offshore aquaculture decreased as the offshore distance increased. All the oilfields in Liaodong Bay are influenced by sea-ice hazard, two of the fields in Bohai Bay are slightly affected and the remaining fields are not influenced. The risk for marine navigation is related to the location of the port and the distance from the port. The risk in the port area is the highest; it is reduced by more than 30% at distances 10 km away from the port.
To investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of sea-ice resource, we used sea-ice volume to measure the amount of sea-ice resource in the Bohai Sea, China. The sea-ice area was extracted from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote-sensing images using the zonal threshold method. The sea-ice thickness was estimated using a sea-ice model based on shortwave radiation theory and field measurements. The spatio-temporal characteristics of sea-ice volume were then analysed using GIS technology. The results indicate that the Bohai Sea experienced two sea-ice volume peaks in winter 2009/10. The largest sea-ice volume was in Liaodong Bay (∼80.26% of the entire sea-ice volume of the Bohai Sea). Bohai Bay had the second largest ice volume, and Laizhou Bay the smallest. The relationship between sea-ice volume and distance from shore is essentially exponential. The proportion of total sea-ice volume that is 0–10 km from shore is ∼42.43%, whereas the proportion that is 100–110 km from shore is only 0.002%.
KLa2Ti3O9.5 and KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals were successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method and a subsequent calcination treatment. The band gap (Eg) of the KLa2Ti3O9.5 nanocrystals was calculated to be about 2.56 eV by means of the reflectance diffusion technique. Under 980-nm excitation, the KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals emitted intense green (2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2) and red (4F9/2 → 4I15/2) upconversion (UC) luminescence. In comparison with pure KLa2Ti3O9.5, the KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals exhibited a higher activity for water splitting into H2 under simulated solar light irradiation. We suggest that the enhancement of photocatalytic activity is related to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and UC luminescence of KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+.