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Bispyribac-sodium, a herbicide that inhibits acetolactate synthase (ALS), is frequently used in rice fields in India to control weeds, including the most common noxious weed, barnyardgrass. However, rice growers have recently reported reduced control of barnyardgrass with bispyribac-sodium. Hence, a large-scale survey was carried out to assess bispyribac-sodium resistance in Chhattisgarh and Kerala, two rice-growing states. Open-field pot experiments were conducted for 2 yr to confirm resistance to bispyribac-sodium. Of the 37 biotypes tested, 30% (11) survived the recommended label rate of bispyribac-sodium (25 g ai ha−1). The effective rate of bispyribac-sodium required to achieve 50% control (ED50) of putative resistant biotypes ranged from 18 to 41 g ha−1, whereas it was about 10 g ha−1 for susceptible biotypes. This suggests that putative biotypes were two to four times more resistant to bispyribac-sodium. At 6 d after herbicide application, an in vitro enzyme assay demonstrated higher ALS enzyme activity in putative resistant biotypes (66% to 75%) compared with susceptible biotypes (48% to 52%). This indicates the presence of an insensitive ALS enzyme in those biotypes and a target site mutation as a possible mechanism for resistance. Whole-plant bioassays also suggested that the resistance problem is more widespread in Chhattisgarh than in Kerala. This study confirmed the first case of evolved resistance in barnyardgrass to bispyribac-sodium in rice fields of India.
Smallflower umbrella sedge is one of the most problematic weeds in direct-seeded rice in India. Bispyribac-sodium (acetolactate synthase [ALS]-inhibiting herbicide) is commonly used in rice, but growers have recently reported lack of smallflower umbrella sedge control with this herbicide. An extensive survey was carried out in two rice-growing states, Chhattisgarh and Kerala, where 53 putative bispyribac-sodium-resistant (BR) biotypes were collected. Studies were conducted to confirm resistance to bispyribac-sodium and to test the efficacy of the newly developed synthetic auxin herbicide florpyrauxifen-benzyl on putative BR biotypes. A whole-plant bioassay revealed that bispyribac-sodium is no longer effective. Of 53 putative BR biotypes, 17 biotypes survived the recommended label rate of 25 g ai ha−1. The effective bispyribac-sodium rate required to control 50% of the plants in most of the BR biotypes (ED50) ranged from 19 to 96 g ha−1, whereas it was 10 g ha−1 in a susceptible biotype. In two highly resistant biotypes, the ED50 was beyond the maximum tested rate, 200 g ha−1. This suggests 2- to >20-fold resistance in BR biotypes. An ALS enzyme activity assay suggests an altered target site as mechanism of resistance to bispyribac-sodium. This study confirms the first case of evolved resistance to bispyribac-sodium in smallflower umbrella sedge in India. However, the newly developed synthetic auxin florpyrauxifen-benzyl effectively controlled all BR biotypes at the field use rate of 31.25 g ai ha−1.
Field experiments were conducted in grain sorghum at five locations in Kansas in 2009 and 2010, to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of early- to mid-POST (EMPOST) and late-POST (LPOST) applications of premixed pyrasulfotole and bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) in tank mix combinations with atrazine or atrazine plus 2,4-D ester or dicamba compared to bromoxynil plus atrazine. PYRA&BROM at 244 or 300 g ai ha−1 plus atrazine at 560 g ai ha−1 applied EMPOST controlled pigweed species (Palmer amaranth, tumble pigweed, and redroot pigweed), kochia, velvetleaf, common sunflower, ivyleaf morningglory, and common lambsquarters 93% or greater. Puncturevine control among three locations ranged from 85 to 99%. Control of most weed species was not improved by increasing PYRA&BROM rate from 244 to 300 g ha−1 or by tank mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. However, ivyleaf morningglory control was improved at the LPOST timing by adding 2,4-D or dicamba at 140 g ae ha−1. In no instance did any PYRA&BROM treatment provide greater weed control than bromoxynil plus atrazine at 281 + 560 g ha−1 when applied EMPOST, but in most instances PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective than bromoxynil plus atrazine when applied LPOST. Generally, PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective when applied EMPOST than LPOST, especially when 2,4-D or dicamba was added. PYRA&BROM plus atrazine treatments caused foliar bleaching in sorghum within 7 ± 3 d after treatment, but recovery was complete within 3 to 4 wk and grain yields were not reduced. Tank mixing dicamba with PYRA&BROM and atrazine occasionally reduced visible crop response compared to PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. Our results indicate that PYRA&BROM plus atrazine with or without 2,4-D or dicamba selectively controls several troublesome broadleaf weeds in grain sorghum. Foliar bleaching of sorghum leaves can occur but the symptoms are transient, and grain yields are not likely to be reduced.
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