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Weed Control and Crop Safety with Premixed Pyrasulfotole and Bromoxynil in Grain Sorghum

  • Seshadri S. Reddy (a1), Phillip W. Stahlman (a1), Patrick W. Geier (a1), Curtis R. Thompson (a2), Randall S. Currie (a3), Alan J. Schlegel (a4), Brian L. Olson (a5) and Nathan G. Lally (a2)...

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted in grain sorghum at five locations in Kansas in 2009 and 2010, to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of early- to mid-POST (EMPOST) and late-POST (LPOST) applications of premixed pyrasulfotole and bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) in tank mix combinations with atrazine or atrazine plus 2,4-D ester or dicamba compared to bromoxynil plus atrazine. PYRA&BROM at 244 or 300 g ai ha−1 plus atrazine at 560 g ai ha−1 applied EMPOST controlled pigweed species (Palmer amaranth, tumble pigweed, and redroot pigweed), kochia, velvetleaf, common sunflower, ivyleaf morningglory, and common lambsquarters 93% or greater. Puncturevine control among three locations ranged from 85 to 99%. Control of most weed species was not improved by increasing PYRA&BROM rate from 244 to 300 g ha−1 or by tank mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. However, ivyleaf morningglory control was improved at the LPOST timing by adding 2,4-D or dicamba at 140 g ae ha−1. In no instance did any PYRA&BROM treatment provide greater weed control than bromoxynil plus atrazine at 281 + 560 g ha−1 when applied EMPOST, but in most instances PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective than bromoxynil plus atrazine when applied LPOST. Generally, PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective when applied EMPOST than LPOST, especially when 2,4-D or dicamba was added. PYRA&BROM plus atrazine treatments caused foliar bleaching in sorghum within 7 ± 3 d after treatment, but recovery was complete within 3 to 4 wk and grain yields were not reduced. Tank mixing dicamba with PYRA&BROM and atrazine occasionally reduced visible crop response compared to PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. Our results indicate that PYRA&BROM plus atrazine with or without 2,4-D or dicamba selectively controls several troublesome broadleaf weeds in grain sorghum. Foliar bleaching of sorghum leaves can occur but the symptoms are transient, and grain yields are not likely to be reduced.

Se realizaron experimentos de campo con sorgo para grano, en cinco localidades en Kansas en 2009 y 2010, para evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad en el cultivo de aplicaciones tempranas a intermedias POST (EMPOST) y tardías POST (LPOST) de pre-mezclas de pyrasulfotole y bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) en combinaciones en mezclas en tanque con atrazine o atrazine más 2,4-D ester o dicamba comparadas a bromoxynil más atrazine. PYRA&BROM a 244 ó 300 g ai ha−1 más atrazine a 560 g ai ha−1 aplicado EMPOST controló especies de amaranto (Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus albus, y Amaranthus retroflexus), Kochia scoparia, Abutilon theophrasti, Helianthus annuus, Ipomoea hederacea y Chenopodium album 93% o más. El control de Tribulus terrestris en tres localidades varió entre 85 y 99%. El control de la mayoría de las especies de malezas no mejoró al incrementar la dosis PYRA&BROM de 244 a 300 g ai ha−1 o al mezclar en tanque 2,4-D o dicamba con PYRA&BROM más atrazine. Sin embargo, el control de I. hederacea fue mejorado en LPOST al agregar 2,4-D o dicamba a 140 g ai ha−1. En ninguna instancia, ninguno de los tratamientos PYRA&BROM brindaron un control de malezas mayor al brindado por bromoxynil más atrazine 281 + 560 g ha−1 cuando se aplicó EMPOST, pero en la mayoría de las instancias los tratamientos PYRA&BROM fueron más efectivos que bromoxynil más atrazine aplicados LPOST. Generalmente, los tratamientos PYRA&BROM fueron más efectivos cuando se aplicaron EMPOST que LPOST, especialmente cuando se agregó 2,4-D o dicamba. Los tratamientos PYRA&BROM más atrazine causaron blanqueamiento foliar en el sorgo a 7 ± 3 días después del tratamiento, pero este se recuperó completamente en 2 a 4 semanas y los rendimientos de grano no se redujeron. El mezclar en tanque dicamba con PYRA&BROM y atrazine ocasionalmente redujo la respuesta visible del cultivo en comparación con PYRA&BROM más atrazine. Nuestros resultados indican que PYRA&BROM más atrazine con o sin 2,4-D o dicamba controla selectivamente malezas de hoja ancha problemáticas en el sorgo para grano. El blanqueamiento foliar de hojas de sorgo puede ocurrir, pero los síntomas son transitorios, y las reducciones en rendimientos de grano son poco probables.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: stahlman@ksu.edu

References

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