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Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite its clinical importance, the development of dementia is still difficult to predict. In this study, we investigated the possible associations between non-motor symptoms and the risk of developing dementia within a 2-year observation period in PD.
A total of 80 patients with PD participated in this study. Nonmotor symptoms (the Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire), PD status (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale), depression (Geriatric d Depression Scale or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale), stereopsis and severity of nonmotor symptoms (Non-motor symptoms scale) were assessed. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years later.
Presence of depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia, abnormal stereopsis, non-smoking and postural instability/ gait disturbance phenotype were associated with a significantly more rapid decline of Mini-Mental State Examination. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that depression (odds ratio=13.895), abnormal stereopsis (odds ratio=10.729), vivid dreaming (odds ratio=4.16), REM sleep behavior disorders (odds ratio=5.353) and hyposmia (odds ratio=4.911) were significant independent predictors of dementia risk within 2 years. Postural instability/ gait disturbance phenotype and age >62 years were also independent predictors of dementia risk (odd ratio=38.333, odds ratio=10.625).
We suggest that depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia and abnormal stereopsis are closely associated with cognitive decline, and that presence of these nonmotor symptoms predict the subsequent development of Parkinson’s disease dementia.
few studies have addressed the association between the characteristics of ischemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (dWi) and the clinical outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke. this study demonstrates a relationship between the findings assessed by dWi and the outcome in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
We reviewed data from 118 patients who had posterior circulation ischemic stroke within six hours from the onset of their symptoms. the clinical outcome included early neurological deterioration (end) and a favorable outcome at three months after the onset of symptoms. using dWi, the lesion volume and the number and location of injured anatomical regions were analyzed to evaluate whether the results correlated with the clinical outcome measures.
the number of injured anatomical regions assessed by dWi was associated with the initial and delayed neurological status. Both the total volume and the number of injured anatomical regions associated with end and a favorable outcome. analysis of the location of the injured regions determined that only a pontine lesion independently associated with end. interestingly, four out of five patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy exhibited a large infarction volume but minor symptoms.
in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic strokes, the lesions assessed by dWi were associated with the clinical outcome, regardless of the initial neurological status. dWi is an effective initial imaging tool for assessing the extent of lesions and clinical outcomes in patients with hyperacute posterior circulation ischemic stroke.
Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease, usually occurring in late and advanced stages. The aim of this study was to investigate the postural performance of early-stage de novo Parkinson's disease patients with no clinical postural instability using computerized dynamic posturography. We sought to understand the relationship between postural sway and disease severity and the relationship between postural instability quantitatively measured by computerized dynamic posturography and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients.
Thirty-one subjects with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy controls were assessed by the computerized dynamic posturography protocol using the sensory organization test and the motor control test. A neuropsychological assessment was also administered.
The mean equilibrium score for sensory organization test and the vestibular input ratio were significantly correlated with Hoehn-Yahr stage. No associations between motor latency for any motor control test condition and Hoehn-Yahr stage were found. The equilibrium score for sensory organization test correlated with the mini-mental status examination scores. There was a significant correlation between motor latency for large backward translation and mini-mental status examination scores. There were significant correlations between visual perception/construction/ memory of the neuropsychological battery test and the equilibrium score for sensory organization test and between verbal word learning test, controlled word association test and motor latency for large backward translation.
These findings showed the postural instability present in early-stage (Hoehn-Yahr stage 2-2.5) Parkinson's disease. We also found a close relationship between postural instability and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease patients.
Free fatty acids (FFAs), an important energy substrate, have an association with cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac rhythm. However, limited reports are available on the association between FFAs and ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that plasma FFA concentration could be associated with an ischemic stroke, emphasizing the relationship between FFA and subtypes of ischemic stroke.
A cross-sectional study examined the association between FFA concentration and subtypes of stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis from a hospital-based acute stroke registry.
Data of 715 stroke patients were analyzed. The concentration of FFA was highest in the cardioembolic stroke subtype compared with the other stroke subtypes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in FFA concentration was significantly associated with the cardioembolic subtype after the adjustment of covariates. FFA concentration was also higher in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than those without AF. According to the presence of atherosclerotic stenosis, no significantly difference of FFA concentration was found for intracranial and extracranial cerebral arterial atherosclerosis.
Here we report a significant association between fasting FFA concentration and the cardioembolic stroke subtype. AF is suggested as the mediating factor between FFA and the cardioembolic stroke subtype.
Motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well described, yet little attention has been paid to non-motor symptoms, especially cortical visual dysfunction. We investigated stereopsis, as well as the relationship between stereopsis and other cognitive function, in a sample of PD patients.
We used Titmus stereotest plates for assessing stereopsis. Fifty-nine subjects (29 PD patients and 30 normal controls) were included in this study. The included patients underwent a neurological examination, clinical rating scale and neuropsychological tests.
Drug naïve PD patients showed decreased stereopsis on the Titmus fly stereopsis test (Pearson χ2=23.80, p<0.001) compared to PD patients with normal stereopsis. The Hoehn-Yahr stages and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores were significantly higher in patients with PD with abnormal stereopsis than in patients with PD with normal stereopsis (p=0.026; p=0.046). The frequency of abnormal visual perception/constructive function was greater in patients with PD with abnormal stereopsis compared to patients with PD with normal stereopsis (Pearson χ2=5.11, p=0.024).
These findings suggest that stereopsis deficits and visual perception/constructive dysfunction are common in de novo PD patients.
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