To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychopathic traits predispose individuals toward antisocial behavior. Such antagonistic acts often result in “unsuccessful” outcomes such as incarceration. What mechanisms allow some people with relatively high levels of psychopathic traits to live “successful”, unincarcerated lives, in spite of their antisocial tendencies? Using neuroimaging, we investigated the possibility that “successful” psychopathic individuals exhibited greater development of neural structures that promote “successful” self-regulation, focusing on the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Across two structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of “successful” participants (Study 1: N = 80 individuals in long-term romantic relationships; Study 2: N = 64 undergraduates), we observed that gray matter density in the left and right VLPFC was positively associated with psychopathic traits. These preliminary results support a compensatory model of psychopathy, in which “successful” psychopathic individuals develop inhibitory mechanisms to compensate for their antisocial tendencies. Traditional models of psychopathy that emphasize deficits may be aided by such compensatory models that identify surfeits in neural and psychological processes.
Making predictions about aliens is not an easy task. Most previous work has focused on extrapolating from empirical observations and mechanistic understanding of physics, chemistry and biology. Another approach is to utilize theory to make predictions that are not tied to details of Earth. Here we show how evolutionary theory can be used to make predictions about aliens. We argue that aliens will undergo natural selection – something that should not be taken for granted but that rests on firm theoretical grounds. Given aliens undergo natural selection we can say something about their evolution. In particular, we can say something about how complexity will arise in space. Complexity has increased on the Earth as a result of a handful of events, known as the major transitions in individuality. Major transitions occur when groups of individuals come together to form a new higher level of the individual, such as when single-celled organisms evolved into multicellular organisms. Both theory and empirical data suggest that extreme conditions are required for major transitions to occur. We suggest that major transitions are likely to be the route to complexity on other planets, and that we should expect them to have been favoured by similarly restrictive conditions. Thus, we can make specific predictions about the biological makeup of complex aliens.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal 2 (CLN2) disease, a form of Batten disease, is a rare, degenerative neurometabolic disorder. Disease onset around 2–4 years is followed by rapid decline in motor and neurologic function and mortality in early teenage years (1). Disease burden is best captured using observer-reported outcomes. However, validation is challenging in ultra-orphan diseases, requiring flexible methods and reasonable acceptance of limitations related to participant access.
The study aim was to assess content validation of clinical trial measures (i) CLN2 Disease Based Quality of Life Assessment (Sponsor-developed), (ii) EQ-5D-5L, (iii) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL); and (iv) PedsQL Family Impact Module.
The Batten Disease Family Association recruited United Kingdom caregivers of a child with CLN2 disease (aged 3–7 years, non-participants in any CLN2 trial), to:
1.Focus groups with symptom elicitation
2.Cognitive interviews to assess measures.
The Focus group comprised eleven caregivers (eight female, three male) from six families. Three families were current caregivers and remainders bereaved. Symptom and disease impact elicited showed the majority of measures domains were relevant.
The interview sample comprised sixteen current caregivers (twelve female, four male) from ten families (caring for eleven children). Overall measures were relevant, easy to understand and answer. However several items were difficult to apply to children with advanced disease (for example, Euroqol, EQ-5D-5L “overall health”), when ability is lost (for example, PedsQL walking), with misinterpretation of “no difficulties” with eating where child feeds using gastrostomy (CLN2 QoL). Caregivers found it difficult to know how their uncommunicative child was feeling (PedsQL worrying, EQ-5D-5L depression). Some symptoms and impacts were missing (for example, constipation, working life).
The mixed-methods approach enabled content validity assessment of multiple measures. While these measures were largely relevant, adjustments could strengthen these for use in this fatal pediatric condition population and increase their acceptance within health technology assessment (HTA).
Before the death of Steven Pimlott, for whom I played Richard II at the RSC, he and I discussed filming the White Box production that we'd done at The Other Place in 2000. We thought long and hard about a proper space for this modern-dress version that could encompass the White Box's triple identity as laboratory, operating theatre and madhouse. Eventually we decided it would be exciting to film it after hours at the National Portrait Gallery (NPG), with Richard standing before pictures of his Tudor successors before wandering down the uncluttered corridors of the twenty-first century to look at photographs of Kate Moss and muse on the nature of celebrity and kingship. I’m sorry we never got to do it, partly because it's a good idea, antidotal to the BBC Hollow Crown which (good though it was) presented a fairly conventional view of Richard II as a play of pageantry, spectacle and divine right, and partly because our NPG version might have been a worthy pendant to this one by Ashtar Theatre, which was aggressively secular and political at every turn.
The original Globe was named at a time when theatre wasn't embarrassed to trumpet its significance; perhaps the greatest achievement of this Globe to Globe Festival is to remind us of that. The Greeks thought life on stage was useful while we decided how best to live our lives off stage. Now we name our theatres after actors or monarchs. Now is the summer of our Diamond Jubilee. What, today, is the global significance of Richard II? The play has been many things to many people: a hymn to the divine right of kings, an exploration of what it means to be mortal, fuel to those about to attempt a coup. Inevitably with this production the last of those looms largest. On 7 February 1601, supporters of the Earl of Essex paid the Chamberlain's Men to stage a performance of Richard II the night before their armed rebellion. Where did they stage it? At the Globe, of course.
We conducted a longitudinal study involving 734 college students over a three-month period that included the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The study investigated factors such as respondents' personality characteristics and ideological proclivities in predicting perceptions of the major candidates and both stability and change in voting preferences for Barack Obama and John McCain. Previous research on personality and political orientation suggests that Openness to New Experiences is positively associated with liberal political preferences, whereas Conscientiousness is positively associated with conservative preferences; we replicated these results in the context of the current study. Several ideological factors also predicted conversion to Obama's candidacy. These included respondents' degree of self-reported liberalism, perceptions of their parents as liberal (versus conservative), and lower scores on measures of authoritarianism and political system justification (i.e., support for the prevailing system of electoral politics and government). The effects of Openness and Conscientiousness on candidate preferences were statistically mediated by ideological variables, providing further evidence that general predispositions exist that link personality and political orientation, and these are likely to play a significant role in electoral politics. Implications for the integration of “top-down” (institutional) and “bottom-up” (psychological) approaches to the study of political behavior are discussed.