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Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients.
Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively.
Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant.
These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I.
Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders, with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide.
While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified.
To assess the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these euphoric versus irritable pediatric mania.
Systematic review of the available studies assessing the phenomenology, course and outcome of pediatric mania.
Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95–100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age.
Severe irritability is the most common presentation of abnormal mood described in children with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies of samples with irritable versus elated mood presentation and chronic versus episodic course may help clarify whether these are factors predicting different long-term course, treatment-response and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Dog treats might be contaminated with Salmonella. In Canada and the USA, outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived dog treats were reported. Consequently, surveillance data on Salmonella contamination of dog treats have been gathered in many countries, but not in Japan. In the current study, we investigated whether dog treats in Japan were contaminated with Salmonella. Overall, 303 dog treats (of which 255 were domestically produced) were randomly collected and the presence of Salmonella investigated. Seven samples were positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Among these isolates, three were identified as serovar 4,5,12:i:–; two were serovar Rissen; and two were serovar Thompson. All serovar 4,5,12:i:– and Thompson isolates were resistant to one or more drugs. Two serovar Rissen isolates were fully susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents. All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The gene blaTEM was detected in two serovar 4,5,12:i:– isolates. The blaCTX−M and blaCMY genes were not detected in any isolates. This study demonstrated that dog treats in Japan could constitute a potential source of dog and human Salmonella infections, including multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates.
The present study investigated the dry matter yield (DMY) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization (internal hyphae, arbuscules, and vesicles) of two genotypes of zoysia grass (Zoysia japonica strain Aso and cv. Asagake) at three rates (10, 20 and 40 g N/m2/year) of application of digested slurry (DS) or mineral fertilizer. Soil chemical properties (available phosphorus concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC)) were also measured as factors associated with AM colonization. The fertilizer type (DS v. mineral fertilizer) had an effect on DMY depending on the plant genotypes but had little or no effect on AM colonization, and soil chemical properties, indicating that DS can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer; however, it is necessary to apply it taking into account the ratio of inorganic nitrogen (N). However, heavy DS application decreased colonization by internal hyphae. Furthermore, even at the lowest rate, the continuous application of DS decreased colonization by arbuscules and vesicles in both genotypes, which were associated with decreasing soil pH and increasing EC. The results suggest that zoysia grass should be fertilized with DS at a rate of <10 g N/m2/year in order to achieve a continuous association with AM fungi, although this range of N application is sub-optimal for zoysia grass production.
Empirical studies suggest that cost-share programs are unlikely to reduce exploitation of ground water and nonpoint-source pollution. By introducing an induced irrigation technology in our model, we find theoretically that the optimal amount of irrigation water and nitrogen fertilizer increases (decreases) when the increased rate of the marginal net economic benefits from their use with an induced irrigation technology exceeds (is less than) an increase in the rate of irrigation efficiency. Our results suggest that producers should use relatively more irrigation water and fertilizer when greater quantities of high-value crops are grown because producers will adopt improved irrigation technologies for such crops.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11·5% in all patients studied, and 2·3% of Javanese patients and 18·0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0·01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA ‘on’ and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subtractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although 14C analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed 14C determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, 14C measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015–0.025 F14C for the ambient filters and within 0.041 F14C for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. 14C analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28–79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for 14C analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.
We observed significant reduction of thermal conductivity in semiconducting composite films of Si and molybdenum (Mo)-silicide nanocrystals (NCs). These films were synthesized by phase separation due to annealing at 700 -1000°C from sputtered amorphous Mo–Si alloy. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the NCs were grown to diameters of∼10 nm in the films by annealing at 800°C. Raman scattering spectra showed lower shift of peak positions of Si transverse optical (TO) phonon due to the confinement effect and the tensile stress. The electrical resistivity of the films was 0.17- 9 Ωm at room temperature and showed a semiconducting temperature dependence at 20-400 K. Thermal conductivity of the film was reduced to 4.4 W/mK by enhancement of phonon scattering at NC interfaces, suggesting that the composite film is promising as a high-efficiency Si-based thermoelectric material.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, the dominant chemical species of 14C-gas was studied. [1,2-14C] sodium acetate was added to flooded paddy soil samples, and the content of 14C in the soil, solution, and the emitted CO2 gas during incubation period was determined. Recovery ratios of the total 14C activity to the initial 14C activity were 97.9% at day 1, 86.4% at day 3, and 83.5% at day 7 of incubation. The result of the day 1 means that the emitted 14C-gas was almost 14CO2. At day 7 of incubation, about 16.5% of 14C was failed to recover. Even if the unknown 14C was gases other than 14CO2, the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas will be 14CO2, because the recovery ratio of the 14CO2 was 48.9% (¿16.5%). Sodium 2-bromoethane-sulfonate was used to ensure the emission of CH4, but there was no effect of the regent to the recovery ratio of 14CO2. Methane emission may be little under our experimental conditions. These results suggest that the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas from the flooded paddy soil samples was 14CO2.
We present a first-principles lattice dynamics for the assembly of the transition-metal (M)-encapsulated Sin clusters in amorphous phase (a-MSin), which has been proposed as a potential candidate for the channel material of the next-generation thin-film transistors (TFTs) [N. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Express1, 121502 (2008)]. The shape of calculated vibrational density of states (VDOS) curve of a-MoSi10 is similar to the counterpart of the high pressure phase of a-Si (HPA-Si) although the present systems are obtained as a result of pressure relaxation. Its radial distribution function (RDF) among Si themselves is characterized by the absence of a gap between the first and second shells, which is also the case in . We further present the VDOS of a-WSi10, whose curve shape is again similar to that of HPA-Si. A difference between a-MoSi10 and a-WSi10 is that the W-atom displacement components extracted from the vibration eigenvectors are mainly distributed over a lower frequency range (< ~ 150 cm-1) than the Mo counterpart (~ 150 cm-1 to ~ 300 cm-1). This may be attributed to a larger atomic mass of W than Mo.
We synthesized amorphous semiconductor films composed of Mo-encapsulating Si clusters (MoSin : n∼10) on solid substrates. The MoSi10 films had Si networks similar to hydrogenated amorphous Si and an optical gap of 1.5 eV. Electron spin resonance signals were not observed in the films indicating that dangling bonds of Si were terminated by Mo atoms. We fabricated thin-film-transistors using the MoSi10 film as a channel material. The electric field effect of the film was clearly observed. This suggests that the density of mid-gap states in the film is low enough for the field effect to occur.
Some neuroimaging studies have supported the hypothesis of progressive brain changes after a first episode of psychosis. We aimed to determine whether (i) first-episode psychosis patients would exhibit more pronounced brain volumetric changes than controls over time and (ii) illness course/treatment would relate to those changes.
Longitudinal regional grey matter volume and ventricle:brain ratio differences between 39 patients with first-episode psychosis (including schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder) and 52 non-psychotic controls enrolled in a population-based case-control study.
While there was no longitudinal difference in ventricle:brain ratios between first-episode psychosis subjects and controls, patients exhibited grey matter volume changes, indicating a reversible course in the superior temporal cortex and hippocampus compared with controls. A remitting course was related to reversal of baseline temporal grey matter deficits.
Our findings do not support the hypothesis of brain changes indicating a progressive course in the initial phase of psychosis. Rather, some brain volume abnormalities may be reversible, possibly associated with a better illness course.
Clay minerals are one of the most important components in soil for radiocesium sorption. There are many types of clay minerals in soil, and their capacities for cesium (Cs) sorption differ. However, the effects of differing clay mineral amounts and compositions on Cs sorption behavior have not been clarified yet. In this study, therefore, we studied Cs sorption on illite, kaolinite, and illite–kaolinite mixtures, carrying out batch sorption test and sequential extractions to investigate Cs sorption mechanisms. The amount of sorbed Cs in the mixtures did not depend on the illite content, but the amount of exchangeable Cs decreased as the illite content increased. Conversely, the amount of fixed Cs in the mixtures increased with increasing illite content. These results suggest that the distribution of Cs sorption between ion exchange sites and fixed sites may be dependent on the illite/kaolinite ratio. In addition, we can estimate the amount of sorbed Cs in an illite-kaolinite mixture from the amounts of sorbed Cs in illite and in kaolinite, and the abundance ratio of each clay mineral in the clay mixture. This is basic knowledge needed for long-term assessment of Cs mobility in soil.
The reliability of InP/InGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with highly carbon-doped and zinc-doped InGaAs base layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy has been investigated. The Raman spectroscopy reveals that the post-growth annealing for the carbon-doped InGaAs base improves the crystallinity to become as good as that of the zinc-doped InGaAs base. However, the photoluminescence intensity remains lower than that of the zinc-doped InGaAs even after the post-growth annealing. The current gains of the carbon- and zinc-doped base InP/InGaAs HBTs are 63 and 75, respectively, and they are affected by the base crystallinity. After the 15-min current stress test, the current gains decreased by 40 and 3% from the initial current gains for zinc- and carbon-doped base HBTs, respectively, are observed. These results indicate that the carbon-doped base HBT is much more reliable than that of zinc-doped base HBT, though it has a lower current gain.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, gasification ratios and distribution coefficients (Kd) of 14C labeled [1, 2-14C] sodium acetate were determined by batch experiments for a Japanese paddy soil sample. Approximately 60% of the total added C-14 was released from the flooded paddy soil into the air as gas forms during 7 days shake-incubation periods. In the present study, the paddy soil was contacted with deionized water and well water, and the lower gasification ratio was found for the well water sample. The similar result was observed for the Kd values. Values of Kd varied from 51 to 138 mL g-1. The lower values were observed when the soil was contacted with well water. When the microorganisms in the samples were killed by glutaraldehyde, both gasification ratios and Kd values were nearly zero. These results suggested that microorganisms responsible for the behavior of C-14 in biosphere. In addition, water characteristics such as dissolved ions, pH and electrical conductivity would affect the gasification ratio and the Kd values.
Sand culture using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and hydroponics using carrot (Daucus carota L.) were conducted to examine root-uptake of carbon and its assimilation in the form of 14C-acetic acid. 14C-acetic acid (1, 2-14C, radioactivity: 74 kBq) was added to each pot. Radishes were grown under the dark conditions or the light conditions for 24 h. Carrot were grown under the light conditions after 14C-acetic acid addition (radioactivity: 19 kBq). The 14C radioactivity in each plant part was determined. The distribution of 14C in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using 22Na. The results indicated that the root vegetables absorbed 14C through the roots and assimilated it into the shoots and edible parts. However, the amount of 14C-acetic acid absorbed by plants through the roots was considered to be very small. Absorption and assimilation of 14C seemed to be carried out not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in inorganic forms with very low concentration. 14C dominantly transferred to the plant parts where were physiologically active. 14C movement in the plant did not have a close relation to water movement unlike 22Na movement.
The artificial nano-clay powder was newly examined as a gelator of electrolyte of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The size of clay has two main distributions with 1.4 nm and 20 nm in diameter which are confirmed by STEM observation. The gelation point was determined by using Rheometer. The gel state maintained with more than 5wt% nano-clay in the acetonitrile based solvent. The quasi-solid-state DSSC with nano-clay electrolyte (10 wt%) was successfully showed a high photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.3%, which is equivalent to that using a liquid electrolyte.