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The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The coordinates of GRBs detected by HETE-2 will be distributed to interested ground-based observers within seconds of burst detection, thereby allowing detailed observations of the initial phases of GRBs. HETE-2 was launched successfully on October 9, 2000. The GRB positions will start to be delivered after a few months of the complete testing and calibration of the spacecraft system and the science instruments.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
A balloon-borne X-ray instrument with the modulation collimator was designed and constructed to study the structure of solar X-ray flares. The angular resolution was approximately one arc minute. The instrument was used on an occasion of X-ray flare on Sept. 27, 1970.
Cosmic X-rays were observed with three sets of proportional counters covering the energy range between 0.15 and 20 keV. The detector born on a spinning rocket scanned a celestial region in which the galactic latitude bII changed from 30° to −55° across the galactic plane in the Cygnus-Cassiopeia region. The spectrum of Cyg XR-2 thus obtained is represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung of temperature 3.4 keV modified by the interstellar absorption for the hydrogen column density of 3 × 1021 cm−2. The diffuse component showed an interstellar absorption effect, which was however found much weaker than one would expect if the diffuse component were due entirely to be of extragalactic origin. The spectrum obtained in the highest latitude region is represented approximately by a power law E−1.8 but shows a possible trough at about 1 keV.
We performed a couple of balloon experiments to measure the size and the location of Cyg-X-1 using the techniques of the modulation collimator . The angular periods of the modulation collimator were 26′ and 10′ for the respective flights corresponding to the approximate angular resolutions of the size determination and location, 3′ and 1′ respectively. Preliminary results of the experiment with 3′ resolution are reported here.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
We present the new constraints on the cosmic optical background (COB) obtained from an analysis of the Pioneer 10/11 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) data. After careful examination of data quality, the usable measurements free from the zodiacal light are integrated into sky maps at the blue (~0.44 μm) and red (~0.64 μm) bands. Accurate starlight subtraction is achieved by referring to all-sky star catalogs and a Galactic stellar population synthesis model down to 32.0 mag. We find that the residual light is separated into two components: one component shows a clear correlation with thermal 100 μm brightness, while another betrays a constant level in the lowest 100 μm brightness region. Presence of the second component is significant after all the uncertainties and possible residual light in the Galaxy are taken into account, thus it most likely has the extragalactic origin (i.e., the COB). The derived COB brightness is (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10−9 and (1.2 ± 0.9) × 10−9 erg s−1 cm−2 sr−1 Å−1 at the blue and red band, respectively, or 7.9 ± 4.0 and 7.7 ± 5.8 nW m−2 sr−1. Based on a comparison with the integrated brightness of galaxies, we conclude that the bulk of the COB is comprised of normal galaxies which have already been resolved by the current deepest observations. There seems to be little room for contributions of other populations including “first stars” at these wavelengths. On the other hand, the first component of the IPP residual light represents the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)---scattered starlight by the interstellar dust. We derive the mean DGL-to-100 μm brightness ratios of 2.1 × 10−3 and 4.6 × 10−3 at the two bands, which are roughly consistent with the previous observations toward denser dust regions. Extended red emission in the diffuse interstellar medium is also confirmed.
The effects of gas temperature gradient, pulse discharge modulation, hydrogen dilution, gas flow, and substrate materials on growth of clusters below about 10 nm in size in silane parallelplate RF discharges are studied using a high-sensitivity photon-counting laser-light-scattering (PCLLS) method. Thermophoretic force due to the gas temperature gradient between the electrodes drives neutral clusters above a few nm in size toward the cool RF electrode. Pulse discharge modulation is much more effective in reducing the cluster density when it is combined with the gas temperature gradient, and clusters above a few nm in size cannot be detected by the PCLLS method even for the discharge over a few hours. Hydrogen dilution and gas flow are also effective in suppressing growth of clusters, when the H2/SiH4 concentration ratio is above about 5 and the flow velocity is above about 6 cm/s, respectively. Cluster growth rate with a glass or Si substrate is found to be considerably higher than that without the substrate.
The effect of microstructure on cold-rolling workability and tensile properties of Ni3Si (L12)−Ni3Ti (D024)−Ni3Nb (D0a) multi-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated. The cast alloys with different microstructures containing the D024 phase and/or the D0a phase particles in the L12 matrix were homogenized and then cold rolled. For the alloys with the microstructure consisting of coarse plate-like D024 particles in the L12 matrix, serious cracks initiated at the coarse D024 particles in the early stage of the cold rolling process and then propagated, resulting in failure of the rolled plate. On the contrary, for the alloys with the microstructure consisting of fine needle-like D024 precipitates and/or granular-shaped D0a particles, these second phase particles did not spoil the cold workability, leading to successful cold rolling to 90 % reduction. After 90 % cold rolling, the rolled sheets were fully recrystallized at 1173 K for 1 h, resulting in the formation of a fine-grained microstructure. The room-temperature tensile strength and the yield stress of the recrystallized sheet were remarkably enhanced compared with that of the unrolled alloys, possibly due to the fine-grained microstructure as well as the particle hardening. Also, the high-temperature tensile strength and the elongation were improved in the recrystallized sheets compared to an L12 single-phase Ni3(Si,Ti) alloy sheet. Consequently, it was found that the cold rolling and annealing process was beneficial to improve the tensile properties for the present multi-phase intermetallic alloys.
Interfaces between two kind of substrate, a bulk silicon wafer and a laser-recrystallized Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI), and its thermally grown oxide have been studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of cross sectional specimen shows that the roughness at the interface is atomically flat and nearly uniform for the bulk single crystal silicon and silicon oxide, while being nonuniform and rough as much as 20 nm height for the recrystallized silicon and silicon oxide interface. Consideration of interface between recrystallized silicon and silicon oxide, and the oxide surface above, the observed roughness at the interface is due to original grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon which was used as the material for the laser recrystallized silicon formation. It is also discussed HRTEM of the interface between polycrystalline silicon and silicon oxide.
The development and device applications of the InGaAIN system have progressed dramatically with improvements in crystalline quality by achieved through a buffer layer, the realization of p-type doping, and the growth of ternary alloys. As a substrate, sapphire is mainly used for epitaxial growth because of the lack of a GaN bulk crystal. However, many cracks in GaN film can still be observed and its X-ray rocking curve width is less than 100 arc seconds. This is are thought to be due to the lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients of GaN and sapphire differ by 13.8% and by -34.2%, respectively. These values are extremely large in comparison with the corresponding values for InP and GaAs. Lattice-matching growth thus remains a basic problem in growing the high-quality epitaxial films necessary for high-performance devices.
This paper reviews attempts at lattice-matching growth. Lattice-matching growth of InGaN on a house-made ZnO substrate and near-lattice-matching growth of GaN on SiC and NdGaO3 substrates have been proposed and performed, and the effects of lattice-matching have been confirmed. Various types of surface planes commercially available sapphire substrates are also discussed.
A molecular model for cooperative segmental relaxation has been proposed, which leads to the Adam-Gibbs type dependence of the characteristic relaxation time on temperature and the configurational entropy. When the size distribution for the cooperative domains is introduced, the resulting relaxation spectrum is similar to the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) equation in the frequency range near the loss maximum, but the fit is actually better in the high frequency extremes where the KWW equation always underpredicts the intensity. The model also predicts the broad spread of the spectrum in the non-equilibrium state from the distribution of the apparent activation energy arising from the different sizes of domains.
We now extend this model to the yield phenomenon in glassy polymers. Under the stress, a domain has two alternatives to dissipate the strain energy. One way is to relieve the stress at the rate dictated by the linear viscoelastic relaxation time. This process is possible only when the strain rate is low. At above a certain strain rate, the stress reaches the strength of the domain, forcing to irreversibly break up the domain structure in the manner that can be described by the classical plasticity. It can be shown that the yield stress of a real polymer is a combination of the above two types of stresses. Namely, at a given strain rate, the small domains with short relaxation time will attain the linear viscoelastic steady stress while the larger domains reach the (limiting) plastic yield stress. Thus, the strain rate dependence of yield stress can be predicted from the linear viscoelastic relaxation spectra, even though the yield phenomenon is clearly in the realm of nonlinear viscoelasticity.
Correlation between defects and electrical conduction in surface conductive layers of CVD diamond films has been studied using electron spin resonance ( ESR ) and two points probe technique methods. The ESR analysis revealed the presence of Pac-center with spin density of 1020 spins/cm3. The Pac-center is composed from two ESR signals: ESR signal from carbon dangling bond with carbon atom neighbors and ESR signal from carbon dangling bond associated with nearest neighbor hole ( hole associated Pac-center ). The hole associated Pac-center is an electrically active defect.
Erbium-doped silicon films are grown by ion beam epitaxy (IBE) using an electric-mirror sputtering-type metal ion source in ultrahigh vacuum. In-situ erbium doping with concentrations ranging from 1×1016 to 6×1020 cm−3 is achieved by sputtering the erbium metal pellet with ions extracted from the silicon metal ion source. The oxygen concentration in the films is also controlled in-situ over the range from below 1×1018 to 2×1020 cm−3 by using argon gases containing 1 ppb to 100 ppm of oxygen impurities. The erbium incorporation probability drastically increases (by two or more orders of magnitude) when oxygen is contained in the argon gas during film growth. Erbium is selectively oxidized in the Si host. Erbium segregation and precipitation formation are well suppressed by the oxidation. Sharp and well-split photoluminescence is clearly observed in as-deposited films grown typically at 480°C with oxygen co-doping.
The cumulus–oocyte–complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.
Prior to attempting the in vitro production of embryos in the Bryde's whale (Balaenoputera edeni), we investigated whether spermatozoa can retain the capacity for oocyte activation and pronucleus formation as well as chromosomal integrity under cryopreservation by using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into mouse oocytes. Regardless of motility and viability, whale spermatozoa efficiently led to the activation of mouse oocytes (90.3–97.4%), and sperm nuclei successfully transformed into male pronucleus within activated ooplasm (87.2–93.6%). Chromosome analysis at the first cleavage metaphase (M) of the hybrid zygotes revealed that a majority (95.2%) of motile spermatozoa had the normal chromosome complement, while the percentage of chromosomal normality was significantly reduced to 63.5% in immotile spermatozoa and 50.0% in dead spermatozoa due to the increase in structural chromosome aberrations. This is the first report showing that motile Bryde's whale spermatozoa are competent to support embryonic development.
Confinement and loss properties of tangentially co-injected beam ions have been studied for a standard configuration of the Compact Helical System (Rax/Bt=0.921 m/1.9 T) by use of the global particle simulation code DELTA5D. Both ripple transport and collisions with a background plasma are taken into account. It has appeared that partially thermalized, pitch-angle scattered beam ions are dominantly lost at the small major radius side. It has also been shown that the negative potential can enhance beam ions losses.