1.M'ikanatha, NM et al. 2013 Infectious Disease Surveillance, 2nd Edn. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
2.Weiss, NS and Koepsell, TD (2004) Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness, 1st Edn. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
3.Dimech, W et al. (2014) Analysis of laboratory testing results collected in an enhanced chlamydia surveillance system in Australia, 2008–2010. BMC Infectious Diseases 14, 325.
4.Chen, X-S (2017) Syphilis trends in China: biased by screening and reporting? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 17, 804.
5.Cretikos, M et al. (2014) Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR 5, 7–17.
6.German, RR et al. (2001) Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, 1–35.
9.Ly, S et al. (2017) Establishing seasonal and alert influenza thresholds in Cambodia using the WHO method: implications for effective utilization of influenza surveillance in the tropics and subtropics. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal 8, 22–32.
10.Adams, L et al. (2016) Update: ongoing Zika virus transmission – Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015–July 7, 2016. MMWR MORBIDITY and Mortality Weekly Report 65, 774–779.
12.Hashimoto, S et al. (2004) Numbers of people with HIV/AIDS reported and not reported to surveillance in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology 14, 182–186.
13.National Institute of Infectious Diseases Japan (2015) The HIV testing system working group's role in the establishment of a nation-wide HIV/AIDS laboratory diagnosis system [in Japanese]. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR) 36, 167–168.
15.National Institute of Infectious Diseases Japan (2016) HIV/AIDS in Japan, 2015. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR) 37, 167–168.
16.Iwamoto, A et al. (2017) The HIV care cascade: Japanese perspectives. PLoS ONE 12, e0174360.
17.Suguimoto, SP et al. (2014) Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia. Current HIV/AIDS Reports 11, 134–145.
18.Yoshikura, H (2003) Arithmetic estimation of the HIV-infected in Japan. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 56, 173–174.
20.Nishijima, T et al. (2015) What triggers a diagnosis of HIV infection in the Tokyo metropolitan area? Implications for preventing the spread of HIV infection in Japan. PLoS ONE 10, e0143874.
23.National Institute of Infectious Diseases Japan (2013) HIV testing of anonymized samples in health centers and other facilities -current situation and challenges [in Japanese]. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR) 34, 253–254.
24.Diez, M et al. (2014) Trends in HIV testing, prevalence among first-time testers, and incidence in most-at-risk populations in Spain: the EPI-VIH Study, 2000 to 2009. Euro Surveillance 19, 20971.
25.Smith, DK et al. (2012) Development of a clinical screening index predictive of incident HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 60, 421–427.
26.Public Health England (2018) Sexually transmitted infections and screening for chlamydia in England, 2017. Health Protection Report 12, 18.
27.Nakasone, T et al. (2015) HIV/AIDS in Okinawa Prefecture: epidemiologic trends, measures taken and challenges [in Japanese]. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR) 36, 168–169.
28.Kihara, M et al. (2003) HIV/AIDS surveillance in Japan, 1984–2000. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999) 32(suppl. 1), S55–S62.
29.Ishikane, M et al. (2016) Responding to the syphilis outbreak in Japan: piloting a questionnaire to evaluate potential risk factors for incident syphilis infection among men who have sex with men in Tokyo, Japan, 2015. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR 7, 36–39.
31.Public Health England (2017) Towards elimination of HIV transmission, AIDS and HIV-related deaths in the UK. Health Protection Report 11, 8–14.
32.Rao, S et al. (2016) HIV testing and outcomes among Hispanics/Latinos – United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 65, 1099–1103.
33.Likatavicius, G and Van de Laar, MJ (2010) HIV and AIDS in the European Union, 2009. Euro Surveillance 15, 19737.
34.Duong, YT et al. (2012) Detection of recent HIV-1 infection using a new limiting-antigen avidity assay: potential for HIV-1 incidence estimates and avidity maturation studies. PLoS ONE 7, e33328.
35.WHO Working Group on HIV Incidence Assays (2017) Estimating HIV incidence using HIV case surveillance. Meeting report, Glion, Switzerland, 10–11 December 2015 Geneva: World Health Organization; (WHO/HIV/201703) Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 30 IGO.