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Approaches that bring families and educators together as partners can promote positive outcomes for children, families, and schools. Family-school partnerships may be most effective when aligned and integrated within existing school frameworks, such as multitiered systems of support, including positive behavioral interventions and supports. National and international policy supports embedding a social justice paradigm in services for children and families to improve equity and reduce disproportionate practices. Embedding a social justice paradigm in family-school partnership systems and practices promotes cultural responsiveness and equitable systems. The purpose of the chapter is to describe embedded social justice approaches within family-school partnership interventions as aligned and integrated within positive behavioral interventions and supports. Systems and practices at Tiers 1, 2, and 3 are described, with corresponding practical guidelines. Cultural responsiveness, from a social justice paradigm, is included as a core feature of each approach reviewed. International examples of tiered family-school partnership approaches are included to illustrate key points.
Targeting higher efficiencies and lower fuel consumption of turbomachines, heat transfer and profile loss are research topics of particular interest. In contrast to that, the interaction of both was, so far, rarely investigated, but gains in importance in recent research activities. The profile loss of engine components can be characterised by the airfoil wakes at the blade rows utilising established measurement and evaluation methods for which an adiabatic flow is typically supposed. To enable the investigation of the influence of heat transfer at the blade on the loss characteristics, a novel evaluation procedure was set up. In addition to the pneumatic data, the total temperature in the airfoil wake at a linear cascade was measured by means of a five-hole probe with an integrated thermocouple. For the evaluation and analysis of these data, different definitions of the loss coefficient were investigated and, finally, extended to account for thermal aspects. Furthermore, established techniques to average the local wake data were applied and compared with special focus to their suitability for non-adiabatic cases. Moreover, an extended version of the mixed-out average as defined by Amecke was utilised applying not only a far-reaching consideration of a temperature gradient but also the inclusion of the third spatial dimension to enable the evaluation of field traverses in addition to single wake traverses. These techniques were applied to wake measurement data from a linear compressor cascade gained in a special test set-up in the high-speed cascade wind tunnel for different operating points and different blade temperatures. The suitability of the new methods could be proven, and initial steps of the aerodynamic analysis of the resulting data are presented. Thereby, the acquired techniques turned out as powerful methods for the evaluation of wake traverses on compressor and turbine cascades under non-adiabatic conditions.
Little is known about the determinants of community integration (i.e. recovery) for individuals with a history of homelessness, yet such information is essential to develop targeted interventions.
We recruited homeless Veterans with a history of psychotic disorders and evaluated four domains of correlates of community integration: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation. Baseline assessments occurred after participants were engaged in supported housing services but before they received housing, and again after 12 months. Ninety-five homeless Veterans with a history of psychosis were assessed at baseline and 53 returned after 12 months. We examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with 12-month community integration.
The strongest longitudinal association was between a baseline motivational measure and social integration at 12 months. We also observed cross-sectional associations at baseline between motivational measures and community integration, including social, work, and independent living. Cross-lagged panel analyses did not suggest causal associations for the motivational measures. Correlations with perception and non-social cognition were weak. One social cognition measure showed a significant longitudinal correlation with independent living at 12 months that was significant for cross-lagged analysis, consistent with a causal relationship and potential treatment target.
The relatively selective associations for motivational measures differ from what is typically seen in psychosis, in which all domains are associated with community integration. These findings are presented along with a partner paper (Study 2) to compare findings from this study to an independent sample without a history of psychotic disorders to evaluate the consistency in findings regarding community integration across projects.
In an initial study (Study 1), we found that motivation predicted community integration (i.e. functional recovery) 12 months after receiving housing in formerly homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the same pattern would be found in a broader, more clinically diverse, homeless Veteran sample without psychosis.
We examined four categories of variables as potential predictors of community integration in non-psychotic Veterans: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation at baseline (after participants were engaged in a permanent supported housing program but before receiving housing) and a 12-month follow-up. A total of 82 Veterans had a baseline assessment and 41 returned for testing after 12 months.
The strongest longitudinal association was between an interview-based measure of motivation (the motivation and pleasure subscale from the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) at baseline and measures of social integration at 12 months. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal influence of general psychiatric symptoms at baseline driving social integration at 12 months, and reduced expressiveness at baseline driving independent living at 12 months, but there were no significant causal associations with measures of motivation.
The findings from this study complement and reinforce those in Veterans with psychosis. Across these two studies, our findings suggest that motivational factors are associated at baseline and at 12 months and are particularly important for understanding and improving community integration in recently-housed Veterans across psychiatric diagnoses.
The level of anxiety depending on existing bruxist behaviour between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) patients and asymptomatic volunteers was compared.
TMJD in 40 patients (mean age 35.5, 76% women) was diagnosed using RDC/TMD Axis I and was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The control group consisted of 25 asymptomatic volunteers (mean age 23.4, 72% women). Bruxism was diagnosed based on case history and clinical findings. The anxiety was confirmed by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
A higher level of anxiety was determined for all examined patients (the mean score in STAI 1=38.43, STAI 2=46.10). There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) with respect to the control group (STAI 1=34.25, STAI 2=39.00). Including only patients with determined anxiety depending on age and gender resulted in 62.5% of patients with anxiety according to the STAI 1=42.84, and 72.5% of patients with anxiety according to the STAI 2=44.20. Only 16% subjects from the control group and 40% patients had bruxism. There was a statistically significant difference in scores of both STAI tests in patients with bruxist behaviour (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences between patients with lower (1-4) and higher (5-10) degree of pain were rated on a visual-analogue scale for State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 2 (p=0.012).
This study has confirmed the connection between anxiety and bruxism as one of the central etiological factors. However, patients with TMJD experience a higher level of anxiety. Patients with estimated VAS pain score ≥5 show significantly more anxiety on STAI 2 subscale.
Level of anxiety and pain intensity before and after splint treatment of patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) was compared.
TMJD in 60 patients (mean age 37.9 years, 80% women) was diagnosed using patient's history and clinical examination, and was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the TMJs. Pain intensity was rated on a visual-analogue scale. The anxiety was confirmed by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
A higher level of anxiety was determined due to the fact that the mean score in STAI 1 was 39.80 and STAI 2 was 41.10. Before visiting a dentist, the patients suffered pain for 8.7 months on average. There is a statistically significant difference between patients depending on how long they previously suffered pain and anxiety values for all patients in STAI 1 and 2 (p< 0.0001). Including only patients with determined anxiety depending on age and gender there was no statistical difference in previous pain duration (p>0.05). There is a correlation between anxiety values on STAI 1 scale and post-treatment pain intensity (p< 0.026), and on STAI 2 scale pain intensity proved to be statistically significant before (p< 0.002) and after (p< 0.049) treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in scores of STAI 2 tests of patients with bruxism behaviour (p< 0.042).
There is a possibility of negative interaction of psychological and psychosocial factors within all forms of musculoskeletal disorders’ treatment, including TMDs. This study confirmed the connection between anxiety and various categories of pain intensity in patients during splint treatment.
The notion of gambling fascinates the scientific community for almost thirty years to become today a major concern for health policy. It is a well-known fact that lack of control and excessive gambling can have deleterious effects on the individual.
The aim of this study was to compare the use of video games and gambling in a population of 5568 adolescents and young adults in schools, colleges and universities of France.
A majority of the sample was female (61.2% vs 38.8% male). We note that 43.4% of the sample is less than 18 years old. We evaluated personality dimensions (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, impulsivity), socio-cognitive variables (cognitive distorsions, life satisfaction) and habits (substance use).
Our results showed that 6% of children and 3,5% of adults were found to be at risk of gambling according to the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index (CPGI). Correlations between scores on gambling and problematic video game use were 0.29 for children and 0.44 for adults (significant at p 0.05). According to regression analysis, the predictors of problematic use of video games were depression, incapacity to stop (facet of impulsivity) and the score on the CPGI. For pathological gambling, the predictors were: interpretive bias (dimension of cognitive distorsion), substance use (tobacco and cannabis), facets of impulsivity of the UPPS (incapacity to stop, positive urgency and lack of premeditation) and the total score for the problematic use of video game.
These results are interesting in the adaptation of care for people with gambling problem.
The first aim of this study was to provide prevalence suicidal feelings over time (past week, past month, past year and lifetime) in a population-based sample of old to very old adults without dementia. Does prevalence change with rising age? The second aim was to examine the fluctuation of suicidal feelings over time. How does this coincide with depression status?
Data were derived from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) which are multidisciplinary longitudinal studies on ageing. A representative sample of adults in Gothenburg, Sweden with birth years 1901–1944 were invited to take part in a longitudinal health study on ageing and participated at one or more occasions during 1986–2014. The sample consisted of 6668 observations originating from 3972 participants without dementia between the ages of 70 and 108, including 1604 participants with multiple examination times. Suicidal feelings were examined during a psychiatric interview using the Paykel questions (life not worth living, death wishes, thoughts of taking own life, seriously considered taking life, attempted suicide).
Prevalence figures for suicidal feelings of any severity were as follows: past week 4.8%, past month 6.7%, past year 11.2% and lifetime 25.2%. Prevalence rates increased with age in the total group and in women but not in men. Suicidal feelings were common in participants with concurrent major or minor depression, but over a third of the participants who reported suicidal feelings did not fulfil criteria for these diagnoses nor did they present elevated mean depressive symptom scores. The majority of participants consistently reported no experience of suicidal feelings over multiple examination times, but fluctuation was more common in women compared with men.
Suicidal feelings in late-life are uncommon in individuals without depression indicating that such behaviour is not a widespread, normative phenomenon. However, such feelings may occur outside the context of depression.
As children learn language, they spontaneously imitate the speech of those around them. This article investigates the new words that five children imitated between 1 and 2 years of age. Children were more likely to imitate new words as they aged and as their productive language developed. After controlling for age, children also were more likely to imitate new words that were shorter and with high neighborhood densities, and that contained sounds the children had previously produced accurately. Together, the findings demonstrate that both the patterns of the target words and children's productive abilities are predictors of children's imitative speech. This supports models of language development where there are influences stemming not only from phonological and lexical representations, but also from phonetic representations.
We study data from an organization in which fund managers privately share and discuss detailed investment recommendations. Buy recommendations generate positive abnormal returns, and sell recommendations result in negative abnormal returns. In the context of these results, we explore an important economic question: Why do skilled investors share profitable ideas with others? Evidence suggests that the managers in our sample share to receive feedback on their ideas and to attract additional arbitrageur capital to the securities they recommend in order to correct mispricings.
Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes.
This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries.
We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms.
This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.
Missing outcome data plague many randomized experiments. Common solutions rely on ignorability assumptions that may not be credible in all applications. We propose a method for confronting missing outcome data that makes fairly weak assumptions but can still yield informative bounds on the average treatment effect. Our approach is based on a combination of the double sampling design and nonparametric worst-case bounds. We derive a worst-case bounds estimator under double sampling and provide analytic expressions for variance estimators and confidence intervals. We also propose a method for covariate adjustment using poststratification and a sensitivity analysis for nonignorable missingness. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our approach using Monte Carlo simulations and a placebo-controlled randomized field experiment on the effects of persuasion on social attitudes with survey-based outcome measures.
Regression discontinuity (RD) designs enable researchers to estimate causal effects using observational data. These causal effects are identified at the point of discontinuity that distinguishes those observations that do or do not receive the treatment. One challenge in applying RD in practice is that data may be sparse in the immediate vicinity of the discontinuity. Expanding the analysis to observations outside this immediate vicinity may improve the statistical precision with which treatment effects are estimated, but including more distant observations also increases the risk of bias. Model specification is another source of uncertainty; as the bandwidth around the cutoff point expands, linear approximations may break down, requiring more flexible functional forms. Using data from a large randomized experiment conducted by Gerber, Green, and Larimer (2008), this study attempts to recover an experimental benchmark using RD and assesses the uncertainty introduced by various aspects of model and bandwidth selection. More generally, we demonstrate how experimental benchmarks can be used to gauge and improve the reliability of RD analyses.
Chronic low grade inflammation is considered to contribute to the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy (DR). We recently demonstrated that lack of CD40 in mice ameliorates the upregulation of inflammatory molecules in the diabetic retina and prevented capillary degeneration, a hallmark of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the contribution of CD40 to diabetes-induced reductions in retinal function via the electroretinogram (ERG) to determine if inflammation plays a role in the development of ERG defects associated with diabetes. We demonstrate that diabetic CD40−/− mice are not protected from reduction to the ERG b-wave despite failing to upregulate inflammatory molecules in the retina. Our data therefore supports the hypothesis that retinal dysfunction found in diabetics occurs independent of the induction of inflammatory processes.
Soda consumption is high in the USA, especially among minorities and individuals of lower socio-economic status (SES); this may be due to its affordable price in relation to healthier alternatives. The objective of the present study was to examine geospatial variation in price of milk and soda, and the price of milk relative to soda, by neighbourhood SES and proportion of Hispanic and black individuals.
Retailer soda and milk prices (n 2987; Information Resources, Inc. Academic Data Set 2004–2011) were linked to census block group sociodemographic characteristics (American Community Survey 2005–2009). Linear hierarchical regression models were used to adjust for confounders.
Large chain supermarkets and superstores (n 1743) in forty-one states and 1694 block groups (USA).
For equivalent fluid ounces, price of soda on average was 62 % lower than milk ($US 0·23 v. $US 0·63 per serving) and there was high dispersion in milk price across geographic areas. After adjustment for confounding, neighbourhoods with a higher concentration of black and Hispanic individuals tended to have lower soda prices and higher milk prices (−$US 0·001 and +$US 0·007 in price per serving, respectively, for a one quintile increase in black/Hispanic population), while soda and milk both became less expensive as SES decreased (–$US 0·002 and −$US 0·015 in serving price per one sd decrease in SES index, respectively).
Neighbourhoods with a higher concentration of blacks and Hispanics may be at greater risk of higher soda consumption due to more affordable prices, in absolute terms and relative to the price of milk.