To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite the significant health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, few investigators affiliated with the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs are conducting research related to this underserved population. We provide recommendations shared during a half-day workshop aimed at increasing researcher readiness to conduct LGBT research. This workshop was presented as part of a series on conducting research with underserved populations offered by the Recruitment, Retention, and Community Engagement Program of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Six LGBT health research experts provided focused presentations. The workshop presentations included a summary of significant health inequality issues, theoretical models relevant to research on LGBT health, best practices in measuring sexual orientation and gender identity, recommendations for recruitment and retention, a discussion of community engagement, and ethical considerations in conducting LGBT research. We provide a summary of recommendations to guide future research, training, and public policy related to LGBT health. The information can increase capacity among Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliated researchers in conducting research in this special population.
Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95 % CI −2·97, −0·41) and attenuated to −1·01 mmHg (95 % CI −2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95 % CI −3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods.
Facies belts exhibit a back-stepping trend towards the London Brabant/ Rhenish Massif through the Early Cretaceous. The overall eustatic sea-level rise was punctuated by short-term tectonic events identified either as localised or North Sea wide in extent. The biostratigraphically constrained sequences have, for the first time, allowed a detailed calibration of tectonic and eustatic events on a North Sea scale. The most extensive database available to any North Sea Cretaceous study was available to the authors together with a comprehensive suite of new high-resolution biostratigraphy and sedimentology. This has allowed unique insights into provenance, depositional environment, extent of sequence stratigraphical events and the degree to which unconformities have been tectonically accentuated.
Contact precautions policies in US emergency departments have not been studied. We surveyed a structured random sample and found wide variation; for example, 45% required contact precautions for stool incontinence or diarrhea, 84% for suspected Clostridium difficile, and 79% for suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Emergency medicine departments and organizations should enact policies.
We assessed the role of tuberculosis (TB) disease and HIV infection on the level of physical activity. A combined heart rate and movement sensor was used to assess habitual physical activity in TB patients and non-TB controls. The association between sputum-negative TB, sputum-positive TB, HIV and physical activity estimates were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, haemoglobin and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Sputum-positive [eB 0·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·29–0·64] and sputum-negative (eB 0·67, 95% CI 0·47–0·94) TB as well as HIV infection (eB 0·59, 95% CI 0·46–0·75) were associated with reduced activity compared to controls. Anaemia accounted for a substantial part of the effects of HIV, while elevated AGP primarily mediated the TB effect. The level of physical activity is highly influenced by TB and HIV, and mainly mediated through anaemia of infection and associated with elevated acute phase response.
Spatial and temporal variation of tropical insect communities has rarely been studied, although such variation influences estimates of global species richness. Therefore, we compared spatial and temporal variation of herbivorous insect communities on Neoboutonia macrocalyx trees among seven sites over 1 y in a primary tropical rain forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. The distance between the study sites varied from 4.8 to 31.2 km and altitudinal differences ranged from 20 to 242 m. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed significant spatial changes in community composition of the herbivorous insects and study sites differed also in insect abundance (6.9–26.2 individuals m−2 of leaf area). This is likely to be caused by differences in vegetation, altitude and microclimate among the study sites. The similarity of insect species composition was negatively correlated with geographic and altitudinal distances among sites and positively correlated with the similarity of tree community composition. Species richness varied significantly between sampling dates, ranging from 33 to 41 species. Also community compositions changed between sampling dates, which likely follows from marked seasonal changes in climate and the phenology of other host plants used by the generalist insect species also living on Neoboutonia macrocalyx. In general our study supports the idea of high variability of herbivorous insect communities in primary rain forests even at a small spatial scale. This should be considered when estimations of insect biodiversity are made.
Undernutrition is common among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) patients. Micronutrient supplementation may improve treatment outcomes, but it is unclear whether additional energy–protein would be beneficial. The present study aimed to assess the effect of energy–protein supplementation on weight, body composition and handgrip strength against a background of high micronutrient intake during tuberculosis (TB) treatment. A total of 377 PTB+ patients co-infected with HIV were randomly allocated one or six biscuits daily for 60 d during TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and 2 and 5 months. There were no effects on any outcome at 2 months, but energy–protein supplementation was associated with a 1·3 (95 % CI − 0·1, 2·8) kg marginally significant gain in handgrip strength at 5 months. However, after 2 months, energy–protein supplementation led to a weight gain of 1·9 (95 % CI 0·1, 3·7) kg among patients with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts ≥ 350 cells/μl, but not among patients with low CD4 counts ( − 0·2 kg; 95 % CI − 1·3, 0·8, Pinteraction = 0·03). Similarly, at 5 months, energy–protein supplementation led to a 2·3 (95 % CI 0·6, 4·1) kg higher handgrip strength gain among patients with CD4 counts < 350 cells/μl, but not in those with high CD4 counts (Pinteraction = 0·04). In conclusion, energy–protein supplementation to PTB+ HIV-co-infected patients had no overall effects on weight and body composition, but was associated with marginally significant gain in handgrip strength. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement, before it is recommended to TB programmes.
To improve yield rates during integrated circuit fabrication a better understanding of the material removal process during CMP is sought. Many material removal models have been generated to predict the material removal rate (MRR) during CMP. The majority of such models estimate that the MRR is equal to the material removed by a single particle multiplied by the total number of particles contributing to the wear process. Particles contributing to the wear process are known as ‘active particles’. Several authors have proposed analytical models to estimate this quantity. This work introduces a new method for estimating the number of active particles in CMP by deducing it from the polish results of a multi-physics CMP model. By employing the particle-augmented mixed lubrication model (PAML) developed by Terrell and Higgs (2008), it is possible to determine the number of active particles in CMP. The predictions of PAML are compared with two popular analytical approaches which have been commonly used to predict the number of active particles during CMP.
The manner in which humans use tropical rainforests has far-reaching consequences for the diversity of the world's terrestrial species, because tropical rainforests support more species than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Unfortunately, tropical forests all over the world are threatened by human activities, including forest fragmentation and isolation, collection of non-timber forest products, poaching, fires, forest degradation, and deforestation (mainly through selective logging for timber). Such activities have the potential to disrupt the integrity and functioning of forest habitats, which in turn may lead to loss of species and some of the resources that tropical forests provide. This chapter reviews the impact of human activities in Kibale National Park, Uganda.
Most of the conservation research that we report on here was short term (1 to 2 years). It was also based on a narrow range of ecological variables, such as the response of animal species to logging. As a result, the research findings are sometimes contradictory and difficult to interpret (Chapman et al., 2005).
Kibale National Park has been the center of both short- and long-term research on various aspects of forest ecology (Struhsaker, 1997). Human activities that have led to modifications of the Kibale ecosystems have been going on for a long time but the best documented are those related to selective logging from 1954 to about 1978 and the loss of large herbivores (mainly elephant, Loxodonta africana and buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Since the 1980s, other human-induced changes have taken place.
Refractory materials such as carbon possess properties that make joining them difficult. In this work, bonding of a carbon–carbon composite is achieved by employing self-sustained, oxygen-free, high-temperature combustion reactions. The effects of several parameters, such as the composition of the reaction media, and the values of the applied current and pressure, on the mechanical strength of the joint were investigated. It was found that the C–C composite possesses a high activity with the reactive media layer, the level of electrical current used to initiate the reaction and the applied pressure do not need to be excessive to obtain a strong joint. Some aspects of the joining mechanism are discussed in detail.
Why primates live in social groups and what factors account for variation in group size and composition have been two central questions in the study of primate behavioral ecology (Alexander 1974; Altmann 1974; Wrangham 1980; van Schaik 1983; Rodman 1988; Isbell 1994; Janson & Goldsmith 1995). Theory suggests that the relative costs and benefits of grouping will influence variations in group size and composition. Several factors, such as feeding competition, predation risk, and competition for mates, affect these costs and benefits for group members, but not necessarily equally (ibid.). For example, food generally limits female reproduction in most mammals (Trivers 1972; Bradbury & Vehrencamp 1977; Emlen & Oring 1977; Wrangham 1980; Clutton-Brock 1989), and feeding competition consequently affects females to a greater extent than males. Alternatively, females are the limiting source for reproduction by males (ibid.), and the availability of mates accordingly influences male behavior more than that of females.
The fission–fusion social system of chimpanzees provides a model system for investigating sources of variation in group size. Wild chimpanzees live in large, fluid unit-groups or communities, whose members form temporary parties that vary in size and composition (Nishida 1968; Sugiyama 1968; Halperin 1979; Boesch 1996). In keeping with predictions stemming from current theory, the availability of both food and estrous females have been implicated as important determinants of chimpanzee party size (Riss & Busse 1977; Wrangham & Smuts 1980; Ghiglieri 1984; Goodall 1986; Isabirye-Basuta 1988; Sakura 1994; Stanford et al. 1994; Chapman et al. 1995; Boesch 1996; Doran 1997; Matsumoto-Oda et al. 1998; Boesch & Boesch 2000; Wrangham 2000).
Nanostructures are electrochemically deposited into alumina or polycarbonate templates resulting in monodisperse, anisotropic particles with a range of tunable sizes. These particles have been synthesized with diameters of 20–250 nm and with lengths of 1–10 μm. Currently, structures have been made with stripes of Au, Ag, CdSe, Co, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt. These materials offer a variety of different properties. In particular, many of the metals in this group are excellent conductors, meaning these particles can actually be used as nanowires. Co and Ni are ferromagnetic and may be used for separation or assembly. CdSe is a semiconductor, possibly allowing for the synthesis of electronic devices such as transistors. Furthermore, many of these materials have different surface chemistries, making the orthogonal functionalization and assembly of these nanowires more accessible. This research focuses on increasing the number of materials available, especially semiconductors, incorporating these potentially useful materials into multilayered nanowires and evaluating their electrical properties, either individually or in small bundles. In addition, the surface chemistry of the various materials in the nanowires is being compared to aid in orthogonal self-assembly of functional nanostructures such as memory devices. The work presented will demonstrate the effects of rod composition on electrical properties. In particular, the effects of changing the work function of the materials on either side of a semiconductor to form Schottky junctions or ohmic contacts will be shown.
The entire coding region of the TSC1 gene has been screened for
mutations in 79 unrelated patients
with tuberous sclerosis. Causative mutations have been found in 27 of these
patients and five other
variations in the gene have been identified. 26 of the mutations are predicted
to cause premature
truncation of the protein product of the gene and one mutation is in a
splice site. The mutation screen
has revealed that TSC1 mutations are rarer in sporadic tuberous sclerosis
patients than in familial
cases. We have also found that the only previously described case of non-penetrance
can no longer
be described as such, and that a single ungual fibroma is not necessarily
diagnostic of tuberous
sclerosis, important findings for the genetic counselling of tuberous sclerosis
The transcription map of the human genome published by Schuler
et al. (1996) is a valuable
resource in which approximately one quarter of all human genes have been
mapped with respect to
genetic framework markers using radiation hybrids. We have taken information
from this map to
provide potential genes within the TSC1 candidate region on chromosome
In so doing we have
been able to provide an independent assay of the quality of the radiation
hybrid mapping by using
somatic cell hybrids and a 2 Mb cosmid contig covering the TSC1 region
mapping tools. In
addition, we have built sequence contigs of ESTs for 25 clusters. This
shown that about 20% of
the relevant EST clusters in the Unigene resource (Boguski &
Schuler 1995) contain chimaeric clones.
A new AAT allele (PI Zbristol)
has been discovered in a woman with an obstetric history of three
perinatal deaths from fulminant liver disease and no living offspring.
She and her father were both
PI M1Zbristol heterozygotes. The
Zbristol protein is active as a proteinase inhibitor but appeared
be deficient in the plasma to about the same degree as the S protein in
MS heterozygotes. It focuses
on the basic side of Z and lacks the normal pattern of secondary isoforms
associated with the
commonly occurring AAT variants and migrates faster than normal on an SDS
The Zbristol mutation was found to be a C
T transition at codon 85 changing ACG (Thr) to ATG
(Met). This disrupts the N-glycosylation site starting at Asn
preventing glycosylation at residue
83 in the PI Zbristol protein and explains the protein isoelectric
focusing and SDS gel electrophoresis
results. An analysis of haplotypes in the propositus and her father
indicated that the Zbristol mutation
occurred on the common M1(Val 213) genetic background.
The new mutation also led to the
generation of an NlaIII restriction endonuclease recognition site.
Cell lines from two offspring tested
for the presence of this NlaIII site revealed that one had the
variant and the other did not. Thus,
the relationship between Zbristol and fulminant liver disease
in the offspring is unclear.
The Kibale Forest, western Uganda, is the only site where studies have compared the impact of elephants on rainforest regeneration in logged and unlogged control areas. Elephants used heavily logged areas more than lightly logged and unlogged areas. Forest gaps were used more by elephants than closed-canopy areas and large gaps more than small ones. Gaps were larger in logged than unlogged forest. There were lower densities of young trees (saplings and poles) and a higher incidence of elephant damage to them in heavily logged forest than in lightly logged and unlogged sites. Elephant use of an area and damage to young trees was inversely or unrelated to the density of young trees and directly related to the density of herbaceous tangle. Heavy logging resulted in large areas of herbaceous tangle, which attracted elephants who suppressed forest regeneration by damaging young trees and perpetuating the herbaceous tangle. The tangle directly competed with regeneration of young trees while also attracting elephants and rodents (seed and seedling predators) and facilitating increased windthrow of trees. Selective browsing of young trees by elephants affected rates of regeneration, growth form and species composition. Rather than remove elephants, a more effective and humane approach to long-term management of logging is to reduce logging offtake and incidental damage caused by timber extraction.
We present calculations of globular cluster evolution performed by a modified Fokker-Planck approach, in which binaries formed by tidal capture are followed explicitly, along with subsequent heating mechanisms. The cluster is simulated by a two component model, using the cross sections of Press and Teukolsky (1977) for tidal capture, those of Hut (1984) for the single-binary encounters and for distant binary-binary encounters, and those of Mikkola (1983) for the strong binary-binary encounters. The initial state of the cluster is a Plummer model with N = 3 × 105 and scale radius ro = 1.13 pc. All stars are identical, with mass M∗ = 0.7M⊙ and R∗ = 0.57R⊙. This gives an initial core radius rc = 0.8 pc, and one-dimensional dispersion σ = 11.6 km s-1. All binaries are assumed to be identical, with separation a = 2.5R∗. There are no binaries in the cluster initially. Additional important effects, such as tidal truncation, tidal shocks, stellar evolution and mass loss, and stellar mergers, are not included.
A survey to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people with Down's syndrome was carried out at t raining centres in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Out of a total of 914 people known to the County Health Department as having this condition, 456 attended either junior or adult training centres and, of these, 404 provided urine specimens on two separate occasions. There were seven cases of diabetes among this group—a prevalence of 17 per thousand. Of more significance is the finding that the rate among children aged 0–14 years was 20·6 per thousand, which is considerably higher than expected in a population of this age group. It is postulated that there is an underlying defect of carbohydrate metabolism in people with Down's syndrome.