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Recently, the validity range of the approximations commonly used in neoclassical calculation has been reconsidered. One of the primary motivations behind this trend is observation of an impurity hole in LHD (Large Helical Device), i.e. the formation of an extremely hollow density profile of an impurity ion species, such as carbon
, in the plasma core region where a negative radial electric field (
) is expected to exist. Recent studies have shown that the variation of electrostatic potential on the flux surface,
, has significant impact on neoclassical impurity transport. Nevertheless, the effect of
has been studied with radially local codes and the necessity of global calculation has been suggested. Thus, we have extended a global neoclassical code, FORTEC-3D, to simulate impurity transport in an impurity hole plasma including
globally. Independently of the
effect, an electron root of the ambipolar condition for the impurity hole plasma has been found by global simulation. Hence, we have considered two different cases, each with a positive (global) and a negative (local) solution of the ambipolar condition, respectively. Our result provides another support that
has non-negligible impact on impurity transport. However, for the ion-root case, the radial
flux is driven further inwardly by
. For the electron-root case, on the other hand, the radial particle
flux is outwardly enhanced by
. These results indicate that how
affects the radial particle transport crucially depends on the profile of the ambipolar-
, which is found to be susceptible to
itself and the global effects.
We performed family psychoeducation for depression, and investigated the association between the education and expressed emotion of patients’ families and relapse of depression.
Of 103 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and their primary family members, 53 patients and their primary family members gave consent. The patients were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group, consisting of 24 and 30 patients, respectively. The intervention group underwent 4 educational sessions and education in coping techniques. The relapse rate was compared between the intervention and control groups. In addition, the subjects were divided into high- and low-EE groups based on the EE judgment, and the effect of psychoeducation was compared in each group.
The relapse rate during a 9-month period was 8.3% in the intervention group, being significantly lower than that (50%) in the control group. The relapse rate in the intervention group was slightly lower than that in the control group in the high-EE group, and significantly lower in the low-EE group. Regarding the influence of EE, in the control group, the relapse rate was 70% in the high-EE group, being significantly higher than that (40%) in the low-EE group. On multiple logistic regression analysis, psychoeducation (odds ratio: 25.53, 95% CI: 2.83-229.92) and the Hamilton score at the time of entry (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.045-1.298) were significantly associated with relapse.
It was suggested that the psychoeducation of families is very effective for the prevention of relapse in adult depressive patients.
Recent studies suggest that depression is associated with somatic pain. Despite growing research interest in the topic, the effects of depression-related somatic pain remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the relationships between depression-related somatic pain, treatment satisfaction, and functions of daily living, and to compare them with the relationships between these factors and mental health measures.
We administered an Internet-based survey to 663 patients with depression in Japan, including questions about pain symptoms, mental health, functions of daily living, and dissatisfaction with depression treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was used to assess functions of daily living. We conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between depression-related somatic pain, functions of daily living and treatment satisfaction, and between mental health measures, somatic pain and functions of daily living.
An increase per unit in the number of pain symptoms was associated with a 1.04-unit decrease in physical functioning score (P < 0.001), a 0.67-unit decrease in the role functioning-physical score (P < 0.001), and a 0.53-unit decrease in role functioning-emotional score (P = 0.0010). Meanwhile, we found no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and patients’ satisfaction with treatment, and no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and social functioning.
These results suggest that even when patients report satisfaction with their treatment, they may be suffering from reduced physical functioning and role functioning. These impairments may escape clinical recognition when clinicians or patients fail to discuss pain symptoms.
There is increasing recognition that pain often coexists with depression. the current survey was undertaken to ascertain patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of pain as a physical symptom associated with depression.
Web-based surveys were undertaken for patients with depression, and for physicians treating patients with depression (psychiatrists, psychosomatic physicians, general internists).
848 patients aged 20–59 years entered the main survey, of whom 663 returned the completed survey (78.2%). of the respondents, 424 (64.0%) experienced at least one painful symptom, with almost three-quarters (72.1%) reporting that the pain affected mental symptoms and 68.6% indicating that it prevented recovery from depression itself. Among 337 patients who discussed their painful symptoms with their physician, 52.5% initiated the discussion.
456 physicians completed the physician survey. When asked about the influence of pain associated with depression, 61.7% of physicians indicated that they ask their patients about pain during a consultation, and 79.9% considered that painful symptoms might disturb the patients’ daily life and 52.8% felt that they would delay recovery from depression.
The survey provides further evidence of the association between depression and pain, highlighting the fact that pain is prevalent in this patient population. Increased patient and physician awareness of pain in association with depression and improved doctor-patient communication, enabling patients to discuss painful symptoms with their physicians, and vice-versa, should lead to better overall management and treatment strategies.
Background: The physician-reported Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) test was a key efficacy measure in REGAIN, a 26-week, phase 3, placebo-controlled study of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized MG. Ocular and generalized weakness have shown variable responses to therapies including prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin/plasma exchange. Using the patient-reported MG Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) scale during REGAIN, eculizumab showed a consistent trend toward rapid and sustained improvement across bulbar, respiratory, limb and ocular domains. We analyzed the effect of eculizumab on bulbar, respiratory, gross motor and ocular domains during REGAIN, using the QMG test. Methods: QMG domain score changes to REGAIN week 26 were determined for patients with abnormal baseline scores. Repeated-measures analyses were performed for bulbar (swallowing/speech), respiratory (forced vital capacity), gross motor (limb/axial motor items) and ocular (ocular/facial muscles) domains. Results: Eculizumab-treated patients showed improvements in all four QMG domain scores to week 26. Rapid, sustained improvements were demonstrated across all domains, with a trend toward significant differences between eculizumab and placebo (bulbar, p=0.0628; respiratory, p=0.0682; gross motor, p=0.0114; ocular, p=0.0017). The eculizumab safety profile was consistent with previous reports. Conclusions: Eculizumab demonstrated a consistent response across all QMG muscle domains. This aligns with previously reported MG-ADL findings with eculizumab. (NCT01997229).
Background: Chronic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat refractory myasthenia gravis (MG). This subgroup analysis evaluated response to eculizumab in patients receiving chronic IVIg before entry to REGAIN, a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized MG. Methods: IVIg was only permitted during REGAIN as rescue therapy; previously treated patients underwent a 4-week washout before randomization. Patients included in this analysis had received chronic IVIg ≥4 times in 1 year, with ≥1 dose within 6 months before REGAIN entry. Exacerbations and MG status changes were assessed. Results: Eighteen patients were evaluated; four experienced exacerbations (eculizumab-treated, 1/9; placebo-treated, 3/9). Clinically relevant improvements were larger with eculizumab than placebo, respectively (mean change, standard deviation [SD]: MG Activities of Daily Living score [MG-ADL], -5.3 [4.0] vs -2.1 [2.8]; Quantitative MG score [QMG], -4.1 [6.1] vs -1.3 [3.5]). More patients receiving eculizumab (7/9) had clinically meaningful responses (MG-ADL ≥3 and/or QMG ≥5 points) than those receiving placebo (3/9). Eculizumab safety was consistent with previous reports. Interim data from the open-label extension of REGAIN will be presented. Conclusions: In patients previously receiving chronic IVIg, eculizumab showed a trend toward meaningful clinical improvements and fewer exacerbations compared with placebo. (NCT01997229, NCT02301624).
Background: Patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) unresponsive to conventional treatment experience greater disease burden than responsive patients. This is partly due to exacerbations, which may result in significant healthcare resource utilization. Eculizumab is well tolerated and gives clinically meaningful benefits in these patients. We evaluated the effect of long-term eculizumab treatment on exacerbations, hospitalizations and rescue therapy in the REGAIN study and its open-label extension. Methods: Exacerbations were defined as clinical worsening/deterioration, MG crises or rescue therapy usage; pre-study exacerbations/hospitalizations were defined from patient records. Event rates adjusted for patient-years were calculated for all patients in the pre-study year, patients receiving placebo during REGAIN, and patients receiving eculizumab during REGAIN and its open-label extension (median exposure, 27.5 months [range, 22 days–42.8 months]); rates were compared using a Poisson regression model. Results: Eculizumab treatment reduced exacerbations by 65% (p=0.0057), hospitalizations by 71% (p=0.0316) and rescue therapy use by 66% (p=0.0072) versus placebo. Eculizumab treatment reduced exacerbations by 74% and hospitalizations by 83% (both p<0.0001) versus the pre-study year. Conclusions: Long-term eculizumab treatment reduces disease burden and healthcare resource utilization, demonstrating continuing improvements in clinical endpoints that lead to additional meaningful outcomes for patients with AChR+ generalized MG. (NCT01997229, NCT02301624).
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
We present a comprehensive review of the status and changes in glacier length (since the 1850s), area and mass (since the 1960s) along the Himalayan-Karakoram (HK) region and their climate-change context. A quantitative reliability classification of the field-based mass-balance series is developed. Glaciological mass balances agree better with remotely sensed balances when we make an objective, systematic exclusion of likely flawed mass-balance series. The Himalayan mean glaciological mass budget was similar to the global average until 2000, and likely less negative after 2000. Mass wastage in the Himalaya resulted in increasing debris cover, the growth of glacial lakes and possibly decreasing ice velocities. Geodetic measurements indicate nearly balanced mass budgets for Karakoram glaciers since the 1970s, consistent with the unchanged extent of supraglacial debris-cover. Himalayan glaciers seem to be sensitive to precipitation partly through the albedo feedback on the short-wave radiation balance. Melt contributions from HK glaciers should increase until 2050 and then decrease, though a wide range of present-day area and volume estimates propagates large uncertainties in the future runoff. This review reflects an increasing understanding of HK glaciers and highlights the remaining challenges.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thickness of N radical irradiated InN template with crystallographic quality and electrical properties of InN film grown with the previously proposed method, in situ surface modification by radical beam irradiation. In this study, three InN samples were grown with this method on different thickness of irradiated templates. The crystallographic quality of InN films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the electrical properties were studied by Hall effect measurement. InN grown on 100 nm thick irradiated template shows lower full-width at half-maximum of X-ray rocking curves and lower carrier concentration compared to InN grown on 200 nm and 450 nm thick irradiated templates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation density in the InN film decreased by an order of magnitude to ∼4.6×109cm-2. These results suggest that this method is possible for reduction of threading dislocation density in InN and the thickness of irradiated template should be minimized for higher crystallographic quality and electrical properties of the entire InN film.
Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
It has been indicated that low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are accelerating high-energy cosmic-ray (CR) protons in their radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs). If this is the case, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) should also be generating CR protons, because Sgr A* is a LLAGN. Based on this scenario, we calculate a production rate of CR protons in Sgr A* and their diffusion in the central molecular zone (CMZ) around Sgr A*. The CR protons diffusing in the CMZ create gamma-rays through pp interaction. We show that the gamma-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with observations if Sgr A* was active in the past.
The mode of onset and the course of schizophrenia illness exhibit substantial individual variations. Previous studies have pointed out that the mode of onset affects the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical outcomes, such as cognitive and social functioning. This study attempted to clarify the association between the DUP and clinical features, taking the different modes of onset into consideration, in a prospective longitudinal study examining patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
This study was conducted in six areas of Japan. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were followed for over 18 months. Cognitive function, psychopathology, and social functioning were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-up points.
We identified 168 patients and sufficient information was available to determine the DUP and the mode of onset for 156 patients (92.9%): 79 had an acute onset, and 77 had an insidious onset. The DUP was significantly associated with quality of life (QOL), social functioning, and cognitive function at most of the follow-up points in the insidious-onset group. The DUP and negative symptoms at baseline were significant predictors of cognitive function at the 18-month follow-up in the insidious-onset group.
The present results further support the hypothesis that the DUP affects QOL, social functioning, and cognitive function over the course of illness, especially in patients with an insidious onset. Effective strategies for detecting and caring for individuals with insidious onset early during the course of schizophrenia will be essential for achieving a full patient recovery.
We performed first-principles calculations to obtain the phonon deformation potential (PDP) constants of wurtzite ZnO. The results are in good agreement with available experimental data except for a few PDP constants. We also found that the phonon frequencies of the A1 and B2 modes have relatively stronger nonlinear characteristics than the other modes.
This paper investigated the silicon substrate orientation dependence on the electrical properties of high-κ HfN gate insulator formed by electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering. The effect of N2/4.9%H2 forming-gas annealing (FGA) was studied. By using N2/4.9%H2 FGA at 500°C for 20 min, the interfacial layer (IL) formation was not formed and led to the zero-interface layer (ZIL). The EOTs of 0.47 and 0.51 nm with leakage current of 1.1 and 1.4 A/cm2 (@VFB -1 V) were obtained on p-Si(100) and p-Si(110), respectively. The density of interface states (Dit) with the order of 1011 cm-2eV-1 was obtained on both p-Si(100) and p-Si(110). This suggests that the direct deposition of HfN film with ZIL prevented the degradation of electrical characteristics on the p-Si(100) and p-Si(110) substrate in comparison to the case of oxide-based hafnium gate insulator.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
Hydrogenation properties of some amorphous Zr-Ni-Ti-V based alloys were investigated. Pressure-composition(P-C) isotherms and hydrogen storage capacities at room temperatures were measured and effects of elemental substitution of the components with Pd or Mn were studied. The alloy electrodes were prepared by using amorphous (Zr-Ni-Ti-V)-(Pd,Mn) alloys prepared by the melt spinning method. The amorphous alloys in the electrode kept their amorphous structures during cycles of charge and discharge. The electrochemical hydrogen storage capacities were strongly affected by the substitution amounts of Pd or Mn. Even a small amount of substitution, changed the equilibrium dissociation pressures of the alloy. In the present study, the rechargeable capacity was optimized up to H/M=0.5 for the alloy electrode with the composition of (Zr45Ni30Ti25)-3at%Pd. The slope in the P-C isotherm suggested that the maximum H/M of the alloy would exceed 1.0 at higher hydrogen pressure than 1.0 MPa, however, the wide distribution of hydrogen site energy in the amorphous hydride resulted in extremely large slope in P-C isotherms, and consequently restricted the rechargeable capacities of the electrodes.