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Acanthocephalans of the order Polymorphida mainly parasitic in birds and mammals, are of veterinary, medical and economic importance. However, the evolutionary relationships of its 3 families (Centrorhynchidae, Polymorphidae and Plagiorhynchidae) remain under debate. Additionally, some species of Polymorphida (i.e. Bolbosoma spp. and Corynosoma spp.) are recognized as zoonotic parasites, associated with human acanthocephaliasis, but the mitochondrial genomes for representatives of Bolbosoma and Corynosoma have not been reported so far. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes B. nipponicum and C. villosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) are reported for the first time, which are 14 296 and 14 241 bp in length, respectively, and both contain 36 genes [including 12 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes] and 2 non-coding regions (NCR1 and NCR2). The gene arrangement of some tRNAs in the mitogenomes of B. nipponicum and C. villosum differs from that found in all other acanthocephalans, except Polymorphus minutus. Phylogenetic results based on concatenated amino acid (AA) sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supported that the family Polymorphidae is a sister to the Centrorhynchidae rather than the Plagiorhynchidae, and also confirmed the sister relationship of the genera Bolbosoma and Corynosoma in the Polymorphidae based on the mitogenomic data for the first time. Our present findings further clarified the phylogenetic relationships of the 3 families Plagiorhynchidae, Centrorhynchidae and Polymorphidae, enriched the mitogenome data of the phylum Acanthocephala (especially the order Polymorphida), and provided the resource of genetic data for diagnosing these 2 pathogenic parasites of human acanthocephaliasis.
As space missions are needed in the future, the assembly volume of the space truss will become larger and larger, and the advancing path of the on-orbit cellular robot to the mission target will become more and more complicated. If the shortest moving path cannot be found in the truss environment, the climbing time of the robot on the truss will be greatly increased. To improve the speed of the cellular robot moving to the target point on the large space truss, this paper designs a cellular robot structure and configuration suitable for climbing on the truss and uses the improved sparrow algorithm to solve the problem of robot motion path planning. By establishing a mathematical model of the space truss, the improved sparrow algorithm is used to find the shortest path between the starting point and the end point in the truss environment. Finally, the data of this algorithm are compared with the data of other algorithms. The data results show that the improved sparrow algorithm is very effective in solving the optimal path of the space truss. The improved sparrow algorithm keeps the same optimal path compared with the standard sparrow algorithm, and the overall reaction time is increased by 51.60%, and the number of effective iterations is increased by about 13.87%.
The random distributed-feedback fiber laser (RFL) is a new approach to obtain a high-power stable supercontinuum (SC) source. To consider both structure simplification and high-power SC output, an innovative structure achieving a kilowatt-level SC output in a single-stage RFL with a half-open cavity is demonstrated in this paper. It consists of a fiber oscillator, a piece of long passive fiber and a broadband coupler, among which the broadband coupler acting as a feedback device is crucial in SC generation. When the system has no feedback, the backward output power is up to 298 W under the pump power of 1185 W. When the feedback is introduced before the pump laser, the backward power loss can be reduced and the pump can be fully utilized, which could promote forward output power and conversion efficiency significantly. Under the maximum pump power of 1847 W, a 1300 W SC with spectrum ranging from 887 to 1920 nm and SC conversion efficiency of 66% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the simplest structure used for high-power SC generation, and both the generated SC output power and the conversion efficiency are highest in the scheme of the half-opened RFL output SC.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
Se deficiency causes impaired growth of fish skeletal muscle due to the retarded hypertrophy of muscle fibres. However, the inner mechanisms remain unclear. According to our previous researches, we infer this phenomenon is associated with Se deficiency-induced high concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could suppress the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway-mediated protein synthesis by inhibiting protein kinase B (Akt), an upstream protein of TORC1. To test this hypothesis, juvenile zebrafish (45 d post-fertilisation) were fed a basal Se-adequate diet or a basal Se-deficient diet or them supplemented with an antioxidant (DL-α-tocopherol acetate, designed as VE) or a TOR activator (MHY1485) for 30 d. Zebrafish fed Se-deficient diets exhibited a clear Se-deficient status in skeletal muscle, which was not influenced by dietary VE and MHY1485. Se deficiency significantly elevated ROS concentrations, inhibited Akt activity and TORC1 pathway, suppressed protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, and impaired hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibres. However, these negative effects of Se deficiency were partly (except that on ROS concentration) alleviated by dietary MHY1485 and completely alleviated by dietary VE. These data strongly support our speculation that Se deficiency-induced high concentration of ROS exerts a clear inhibiting effect on TORC1 pathway-mediated protein synthesis by regulating Akt activity, thereby restricting the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibres in fish. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for Se deficiency-caused retardation of fish skeletal muscle growth, contributing to a better understanding of the nutritional necessity and regulatory mechanisms of Se in fish muscle physiology.
According to the public data collected from the Health Commission of Gansu Province, China, regarding the COVID-19 pandemic during the summer epidemic cycle in 2022, the epidemiological analysis showed that the pandemic spread stability and the symptom rate (the number of confirmed cases divided by the sum of the number of asymptomatic cases and the number of confirmed cases) of COVID-19 were different among 3 main epidemic regions, Lanzhou, Linxia, and Gannan; both the symptom rate and the daily instantaneous symptom rate (daily number of confirmed cases divided by the sum of daily number of asymptomatic cases and daily number of confirmed cases) in Lanzhou were substantially higher than those in Linxia and Gannan. The difference in the food sources due to the high difference of the population ethnic composition in the 3 regions was probably the main driver for the difference of the symptom rates among the 3 regions. This work provides potential values for prevention and control of COVID-19 in different regions.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
While the detrimental effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression is well-established, the underlying mechanisms linking the two continue to be inadequately understood. This study investigated the mediating role of family functioning and the moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity in the association between interparental conflict and adolescent depression. The samples included 651 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 13.27 years; 56.5% girls) from a two-wave longitudinal study with data spanning 1 year. The findings from path modeling analyses provided evidence for the mediating role of family functioning; these findings indicated that interparental conflict can damage family functioning, which in turn exacerbates the risk of adolescent depression. The moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity was also demonstrated by interactions between interparental conflict and cultural beliefs about adversity, as well as, family functioning and cultural beliefs about adversity. The results indicated a buffering role of cultural beliefs about adversity on the deleterious effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression. They also suggested that lower levels of family functioning was associated with increased depression among adolescents were lower in cultural beliefs about adversity.
We aimed to investigate the relationship between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and nutritional parameters in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 187 non-dialysis CKD patients were enrolled. Daily dietary energy intake (DEI) and daily dietary protein intake (DPI) were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Protein-energy wasting (PEW) was defined as Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) class B and C. Spearman correlation analysis, logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. The median NLR was 2·51 (1·83, 3·83). Patients with CKD stage 5 had the highest NLR level. A total of 19·3 % (n 36) of patients suffered from PEW. The NLR was positively correlated with SGA and serum P, and the NLR was negatively correlated with BMI, waist and hip circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, DPI and Hb. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for DPI, DEI, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and Hb showed that a high NLR was an independent risk factor for PEW (OR = 1·393, 95 % CI 1·078, 1·800, P = 0·011). ROC analysis showed that an NLR ≥ 2·62 had the ability to identify PEW among CKD patients, with a sensitivity of 77·8 %, a specificity of 62·3 % and an AUC of 0·71 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·81, P < 0·001). The NLR was closely associated with nutritional status. NLR may be an indicator of PEW in CKD patients.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.
When a mixture of viscous oil and non-colloidal particles displaces air between two parallel plates, the shear-induced migration of particles leads to the gradual accumulation of particles on the advancing oil–air interface. This particle accumulation results in the fingering of an otherwise stable fluid–fluid interface. While previous works have focused on the resultant instability, one unexplored yet striking feature of the experiments is the self-similarity in the concentration profile of the accumulating particles. In this paper, we rationalise this self-similar behaviour by deriving a depth-averaged particle transport equation based on the suspension balance model, following the theoretical framework of Ramachandran (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 734, 2013, pp. 219–252). The solutions to the particle transport equation are shown to be self-similar with slight deviations, and in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the shear-induced migration, the advancing fluid–fluid interface and Taylor dispersion yield the self-similar and gradual accumulation of particles.
To examine the associations between factors based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) and behavioral intention among doctors and nurses in China toward free and self-paid (600 RMB or US$91) severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination given 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects.
The study included 362 doctors and 1,702 nurses in major departments of 5 hospitals of 3 Chinese provinces.
An anonymous online survey was conducted from October to November 2020, facilitated by hospital administrators through online WeChat/QQ working groups. Data on outcome expectations, self-efficacy, norms, and COVID-19–related work experiences were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analyses.
The logistic regression analysis showed that physical (eg, protective effect of vaccination) and self-evaluative outcome expectations (eg, anticipated regret), self-efficacy, norms (eg, descriptive norm, subjective norm, professional norm, and moral norm), and job satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with the free and self-paid SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intention outcomes among doctors and nurses, adjusted for background variables. Doctors who had engaged in COVID-19–related work reported higher self-paid vaccination intention.
Health promotion is needed to improve the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among healthcare workers. Such interventions may consider modifying the identified factors of vaccination intention, including strengthening perceived efficacy, positive feelings about vaccination, the need to avoid future regret, self-efficacy, and social norms. Future studies should examine the actual behavior patterns of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and the efficacy of promotion intervention should be tested in randomized controlled studies.