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Since 2014, Chinese courts have placed tens of millions of court judgments online. We analyze the promise and pitfalls of using this new data source, highlighting takeaways for readers facing similar issues using other collections of legal texts. Drawing on 1,058,986 documents from Henan Province, we identify problems with missing data and call on scholars to treat variation in court disclosure rates as an urgent research question. We also outline strategies for learning from a corpus that is vast and incomplete. Using a topic model of administrative litigation in Henan, we complicate conventional wisdom that administrative lawsuits are an extension of contentious politics that give Chinese citizens an opportunity to challenge the state. Instead, we find a high prevalence of administrative cases that reflect an underlying dispute between two private parties, suggesting that administrative lawsuits are often an attempt to enlist help from the state in resolving an underlying civil dispute.
Alcohol use disorder and other substance use disorders are a growing, yet under recognized, health problem in older adults. Generally, screening tests and diagnostic examinations for these disorders are geared toward a younger population. There is a growing body of literature, however, that specifically addresses screening, diagnosis, and treatment substance use disorders in older adults. Several treatment strategies and medications are being used successfully to treat this older population. Physicians and other health-care providers must remain diligent in considering a diagnosis of substance use disorder in all their patients, regardless of age, gender, socioeconomic status, and comorbid conditions.
This article considers an apparent Achilles heel for Kant’s transcendental idealism, concerning his account of how synthetic a priori knowledge is possible. The problem is that while Kant’s distinctive attempt to explain synthetic a priori knowledge lies at the heart of his transcendental idealism, this explanation appears to face a dilemma: either the explanation generates a problematic regress, or the explanation it offers gives us no reason to favour transcendental idealism over transcendental realism. In the article, I consider G. E. Moore’s version of the problem, which I argue has not yet received an adequate response. Instead, I offer a way out of this dilemma by focusing on the normativity rather than the metaphysics of the mind.
One out of every twenty emergency department (ED) visits in the United States is due to a psychiatric issue. Providing a gateway between the community and the mental health system, psychiatry emergency clinicians are responsible for assessing and managing a wide array of clinical presentations and conditions. Among emergency mental health-related visits, substance-related disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and suicide attempts are among the most prevalent presentations. Although urgent conditions are common, increasing numbers of patients who present to the emergency department seek treatment for routine or non-acute psychiatric symptoms. Some patients self-refer to the emergency department, while others may be referred by family, friends, outpatient treatment providers, public agencies, or representatives of the law enforcement system.
This paper describes a computational investigation of multimode instability growth and multimaterial mixing induced by multiple shock waves in a high-energy-density (HED) environment, where pressures exceed 1 Mbar. The simulations are based on a series of experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and designed as an HED analogue of non-HED shock-tube studies of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability and turbulent mixing. A three-dimensional computational modelling framework is presented. It treats many complications absent from canonical non-HED shock-tube flows, including distinct ion and free-electron internal energies, non-ideal equations of state, radiation transport and plasma-state mass diffusivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities. The simulations are tuned to the available NIF data, and traditional statistical quantities of turbulence are analysed. Integrated measures of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy both increase by over an order of magnitude due to reshock. Large contributions to enstrophy production during reshock are seen from both the baroclinic source and enstrophy–dilatation terms, highlighting the significance of fluid compressibility in the HED regime. Dimensional analysis reveals that Reynolds numbers and diffusive Péclet numbers in the HED flow are similar to those in a canonical non-HED analogue, but conductive Péclet numbers are much smaller in the HED flow due to efficient thermal conduction by free electrons. It is shown that the mechanism of electron thermal conduction significantly softens local spanwise gradients of both temperature and density, which causes a minor but non-negligible decrease in enstrophy production and small-scale mixing relative to a flow without this mechanism.
The sources and fate of radiocarbon (14C) in the Dead Sea hypersaline solution are evaluated with 14C measurements in organic debris and primary aragonite collected from exposures of the Holocene Ze’elim Formation. The reservoir age (RA) is defined as the difference between the radiocarbon age of the aragonite at time of its precipitation (representing lakeʼs dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC]) and the age of contemporaneous organic debris (representing atmospheric radiocarbon). Evaluation of the data for the past 6000 yr from Dead Sea sediments reveal that the lakeʼs RA decreased from 2890 yr at 6 cal kyr BP to 2300 yr at present. The RA lies at ~2400 yr during the past 3000 yr, when the lake was characterized by continuous deposition of primary aragonite, which implies a continuous supply of freshwater-bicarbonate into the lake. This process reflects the overall stability of the hydrological-climate conditions in the lakeʼs watershed during the late Holocene where bicarbonate originated from dissolution of the surface cover in the watershed that was transported to the Dead Sea by the freshwater runoff. An excellent correlation (R2=0.98) exists between aragonite ages and contemporaneous organic debris, allowing the estimation of ages of various primary deposits where organic debris are not available.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Objective: To determine whether volumetric measures of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and other cortical measures can differentiate between cognitively normal individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 46 cognitively normal subjects and 50 subjects with MCI as part of the Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease Center research registry and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were used in this cross-sectional study. Cortical, subcortical, and hippocampal subfield volumes were generated from each subject’s MRI data using FreeSurfer v6.0. Nominal logistic regression models containing these variables were used to identify subjects as control or MCI. Results: A model containing regions of interest (superior temporal cortex, caudal anterior cingulate, pars opercularis, subiculum, precentral cortex, caudal middle frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex, pars orbitalis, middle temporal cortex, insula, banks of the superior temporal sulcus, parasubiculum, paracentral lobule) fit the data best (R2 = .7310, whole model test chi-square = 97.16, p < .0001). Conclusions: MRI data correctly classified most subjects using measures of selected medial temporal lobe structures in combination with those from other cortical areas, yielding an overall classification accuracy of 93.75%. These findings support the notion that, while volumes of medial temporal lobe regions differ between cognitively normal and MCI subjects, differences that can be used to distinguish between these two populations are present elsewhere in the brain.
This article offers a discussion of James Kreines’s book Reason in the World: Hegel’s Metaphysics and Its Philosophical Appeal. While broadly sympathetic to Kreines’s ‘concept thesis’ as a conceptual realist account of Hegel, the article contrasts two Kantian arguments for transcendental idealism to which Hegel’s position may be seen as a response—the argument from synthetic a priori knowledge and the argument from the dialectic of reason—and explores the implications of Kreines’s commitment to the latter over the former.
This paper considers the prospects for the current revival of interest in Hegel, and the direction it might take. Looking back to Richard J. Bernstein's paper from 1977, on ‘Why Hegel Now?’, it contrasts his optimistic assessment of a rapprochement between Hegel and analytic philosophy with Sebastian Gardner's more pessimistic view, where Gardner argues that Hegel's idealist account of value makes any such rapprochement impossible. The paper explores Hegel's account of value further, arguing for a middle way between these extremes of optimism and pessimism, proposing an Aristotelian reading which is more metaphysical than Bernstein recognizes, but not as at odds with thinking in current analytic philosophy as Gardner suggests, as it finds a counterpart in the work of Philippa Foot, Michael Thompson, Rosalind Hursthouse and others.
This article is a discussion of Hegel’s conception of the principle ‘omnis determinatio est negatio’, which he attributes to Spinoza. It is argued, however, that Spinoza understood this principle in a very different way from Hegel, which then sets up an interpretative puzzle: if this is so, why did he credit Spinoza with formulating it? This puzzle is resolved by paying attention to the context in which those attributions are made, while it is also shown that the British Idealists (unlike many contemporary commentators) were aware of the complexities in the Spinoza–Hegel relation on this issue. The paper also addresses some of the philosophical debates raised by this question, and the light it sheds on Hegel’s critique of Spinoza as a monist.
Objectives: Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Three neurocognitive networks support efficient cognition: the salience network, the default mode network, and the central executive network. The salience network is thought to switch between activating and deactivating the default mode and central executive networks. Anti-correlated interactions between the salience and default mode networks in particular are necessary for efficient cognition. Our previous work demonstrated altered functional coupling between the neurocognitive networks in non-demented individuals with PD compared to age-matched control participants. Here, we aim to identify associations between cognition and functional coupling between these neurocognitive networks in the same group of participants. Methods: We investigated the extent to which intrinsic functional coupling among these neurocognitive networks is related to cognitive performance across three neuropsychological domains: executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and verbal memory. Twenty-four non-demented individuals with mild to moderate PD and 20 control participants were scanned at rest and evaluated on three neuropsychological domains. Results: PD participants were impaired on tests from all three domains compared to control participants. Our imaging results demonstrated that successful cognition across healthy aging and Parkinson’s disease participants was related to anti-correlated coupling between the salience and default mode networks. Individuals with poorer performance scores across groups demonstrated more positive salience network/default-mode network coupling. Conclusions: Successful cognition relies on healthy coupling between the salience and default mode networks, which may become dysfunctional in PD. These results can help inform non-pharmacological interventions (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) targeting these specific networks before they become vulnerable in early stages of Parkinson’s disease. (JINS, 2016, 22, 205–215)
Is human immunodeficiency virus still a terminal condition? Recent advances in treatment have significantly reduced both mortality and morbidity associated with HIV, but these treatments have not been successful in eradicating the virus itself. As such, HIV has evolved into a chronic condition that is complicated by neurocognitive factors. Cognitive difficulties associated with HIV are characterized by a subcortical pattern with primary deficits in information processing speed and psychomotor speed. These deficits interfere with the ability of patients to complete important instrumental activities of daily living even in the absence of dementia. Treatment of HIV improves neurocognitive functioning, but the regimens are complex and patient adherence is critical. Cognitive factors can negatively impact treatment adherence, which in turn results in poorer immunological, cognitive, and psychiatric outcome. This cycle emphasizes the important interrelationships between symptom expression and treatment outcome in patients with HIV. The nature of these relationships will change with further developments in treatment regimens such as once-daily dosing. Less complex treatment approaches should improve health outcome as well as provide additional opportunities to further understand the impact of HIV on brain function.
Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury that has been defined as a “trauma-induced alteration in mental status that may or may not involve loss of consciousness.” Terms such as getting a “ding” or getting your “bell rung” are sometimes used as colloquialisms for concussion, but inappropriately downplay the seriousness of the injury. It is estimated that between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions occur annually in the United States as a result of participation in sports or recreational activities. To date, there are no objective, biological markers for concussion; rather, the current diagnosis of concussion is dependent upon symptom reporting by the athlete. In the acute phase, concussions can result in a broad spectrum of symptoms that can be transient or last for days, weeks, or even months. Symptom prolongation is generally referred to as post-concussion syndrome.