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New radiocarbon (14C) dates suggest a simultaneous appearance of two technologically and geographically distinct axe production practices in Neolithic Britain; igneous open-air quarries in Great Langdale, Cumbria, and from flint mines in southern England at ~4000–3700 cal BC. In light of the recent evidence that farming was introduced at this time by large-scale immigration from northwest Europe, and that expansion within Britain was extremely rapid, we argue that this synchronicity supports this speed of colonization and reflects a knowledge of complex extraction processes and associated exchange networks already possessed by the immigrant groups; long-range connections developed as colonization rapidly expanded. Although we can model the start of these new extraction activities, it remains difficult to estimate how long significant production activity lasted at these key sites given the nature of the record from which samples could be obtained.
The aim of the 25 and Up (25Up) study was to assess a wide range of psychological and behavioral risk factors behind mental illness in a large cohort of Australian twins and their non-twin siblings. Participants had already been studied longitudinally from the age of 12 and most recently in the 19Up study (mean age = 26.1 years, SD = 4.1, range = 20–39). This subsequent wave follows up these twins several years later in life (mean age = 29.7 years, SD = 2.2, range = 22–44). The resulting data set enables additional detailed investigations of genetic pathways underlying psychiatric illnesses in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Data were collected between 2016 and 2018 from 2540 twins and their non-twin siblings (59% female, including 341 monozygotic complete twin-pairs, 415 dizygotic complete pairs and 1028 non-twin siblings and singletons). Participants were from South-East Queensland, Australia, and the sample was of predominantly European ancestry. The 25Up study collected information on 20 different mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, substance use, psychosis, bipolar and attention-deficit hyper-activity disorder, as well as general demographic information such as occupation, education level, number of children, self-perceived IQ and household environment. In this article, we describe the prevalence, comorbidities and age of onset for all 20 examined disorders. The 25Up study also assessed general and physical health, including physical activity, sleep patterns, eating behaviors, baldness, acne, migraines and allergies, as well as psychosocial items such as suicidality, perceived stress, loneliness, aggression, sleep–wake cycle, sexual identity and preferences, technology and internet use, traumatic life events, gambling and cyberbullying. In addition, 25Up assessed female health traits such as morning sickness, breastfeeding and endometriosis. Furthermore, given that the 25Up study is an extension of previous BLTS studies, 86% of participants have already been genotyped. This rich resource will enable the assessment of epidemiological risk factors, as well as the heritability and genetic correlations of mental conditions.
Geologists and archaeologists have long known that the bluestones of Stonehenge came from the Preseli Hills of west Wales, 230km away, but only recently have some of their exact geological sources been identified. Two of these quarries—Carn Goedog and Craig Rhos-y-felin—have now been excavated to reveal evidence of megalith quarrying around 3000 BC—the same period as the first stage of the construction of Stonehenge. The authors present evidence for the extraction of the stone pillars and consider how they were transported, including the possibility that they were erected in a temporary monument close to the quarries, before completing their journey to Stonehenge.
Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica Boulenger) are a keystone species in the Ross Sea. Silverfish eggs and larvae are abundant during spring amongst the sub-surface platelet ice in Terra Nova Bay. It is not known whether the eggs are spawned elsewhere and accumulate under the ice or whether there is mass migration of silverfish to coastal spawning sites in winter. To test the latter hypothesis, an upward-looking 67 kHz echo sounder was moored in Terra Nova Bay to observe potential silverfish migration. The echo sounder was deployed at 380 m in a seabed depth of 550 m and ran for 210 days from 15 May until 11 December 2015. Acoustic reflections consistent with silverfish were observed at depths of 230–380 m during 9–22 September. This timing is consistent with the presence of eggs typically observed in October. Adult silverfish were also detected with an echo sounder and camera deployed through the ice in McMurdo Sound on 10 November 2015. Juvenile silverfish, but not adults, were observed through the ice in Terra Nova Bay during 11–16 November 2017. This paper provides a proof of concept, showing that innovative use of acoustics may help fill important observation gaps in the life history of silverfish.
Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) emphasize the need to assess human capital and market factors that may contribute to gender differences in income and suggest that such data are not readily available. As members of the Institutional Research Committee, we thought it important to provide some evidence addressing the focal article's main points using what data are available. Specifically, we conducted ad hoc analyses using data from the 2016 SIOP Income and Employment Survey, with the intent of providing additional context related to employment and compensation for industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists. Our sample included only respondents who indicated that they worked full time and who provided their gender (n = 1,069). These analyses answer Gardner et al.’s call to examine factors that explain the income gap between men and women within the field.
The term ‘mood stabiliser’ is ill-defined and lacks clinical utility. We propose a framework to evaluate medications and effectively communicate their mood stabilising properties – their acute and prophylactic efficacy across the domains of mania and depression. The standardised framework provides a common definition to facilitate research and clinical practice.
Declaration of interest
The Treatment Algorithm Group (TAG) was supported logistically by Servier who provided financial assistance with travel and accommodation for those TAG members travelling interstate or overseas to attend the meeting in Sydney (held on 18 November 2017). None of the committee were paid to participate in this project and Servier have not had any input into the content, format or outputs from this project.
Psychological distress (PSYCH), somatic distress (SOMA), affective disorders (AD), and substance use (SU) frequently co-occur. The genetic relationship between PSYCH and SOMA, however, remains understudied. We examined the genetic and environmental influences on these two disorders and their comorbid AD and SU using structural equation modeling. Self-reported PSYCH and SOMA were measured in 1,548 twins using the two subscales of a 12-item questionnaire, the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. Its reliability and psychometric properties were examined. Six ADs, involvement of licit and illicit substance, and two SU disorders were obtained from 1,663–2,132 twins using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and/or from an online adaption of the same. SU phenotypes (heritability: 49–79%) were found to be more heritable than the affective disorder phenotypes (heritability: 32–42%), SOMA (heritability: 25%), and PSYCH (heritability: 23%). We fit separate non-parametric item response theory models for PSYCH, SOMA, AD, and SU. The IRT scores were used as the refined phenotypes for fitting multivariate genetic models. The best-fitting model showed the similar amount of genetic overlap between PSYCH–AD (genetic correlation rG = 0.49) and SOMA–AD (rG =0.53), as well as between PSYCH–SU (rG = 0.23) and SOMA–SU (rG = 0.25). Unique environmental factors explained 53% to 76% of the variance in each of these four phenotypes, whereas additive genetic factors explained 17% to 46% of the variance. The covariance between the four phenotypes was largely explained by unique environmental factors. Common genetic factor had a significant influence on all the four phenotypes, but they explained a moderate portion of the covariance.
It is an unfortunate fact that the Near-Middle Eastern area, which has produced its share of the world's more spectacular antiquities, and which has been the focus of archaeological activity for so many years, has supplied but little material for the radiocarbon dating project. The dearth of specimens would seem to be due to two main factors. First, the general lack of attention hitherto given by excavators to non-artifactual materials (i.e., unworked wood, grain, etc.). Second, the understandable reluctance of museum curators to submit actual specimens of artifacts as samples, since they are destroyed in the process.
Turkeys can have a high incidence of leg problems and leg-related mortality can exceed 1% per week starting at approximately 15 weeks of age. Development of bone and connective tissue is dependent on a number of factors including the availability of trace minerals. These minerals are essential for the function of the metalloenzymes involved in the synthesis of structural connective tissue and bone. For example Zn and Cu are required for the synthesis and crosslinking of collagen respectively. Vitamin D and its metabolites also play important roles in bone development, as deficiencies can lead to a failure of mineralization, leg weakness and rickets. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of partially replacing inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in the diet of growing turkeys with an organic trace mineral source, Mintrex®PSe, in the presence or absence of 25-hydroxy D3, on growth performance, leg abnormalities and bone strength.
Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first ‘1000 days’, it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve health and school performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different micronutrient-fortified rice formulations on cognitive function in Cambodian children.
Sixteen Cambodian schools receiving SMP.
The FORISCA-UltraRice®+NutriRice® study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four groups of four schools were randomly allocated to receive normal rice, UltraRice®Original, UltraRice®New or NutriRice®. Within each school, 132 children were randomly selected. Data on cognitive performance (picture completion, block design and Raven’s coloured progressive matrices (RCPM)), anthropometry, parasite infestation and micronutrient status were collected before the intervention and after 6 months.
Cognitive data were available for 1796 children aged 6–16 years.
All cognitive scores improved after 6 months (P<0·001). Block design score improvement was significantly higher in children consuming UltraRice®Original (P=0·03) compared with the other fortified rice groups and placebo. No difference among groups was found on RCPM or picture completion scores. Stunting, parasite infestation and inflammation negatively affected the impact of the intervention.
Combined with other interventions, using SMP to distribute fortified rice to schoolchildren may be a cost-effective way to increase cognitive performance and thereby improve school performance and educational achievements.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
In this paper we describe methods for finding very small maximal subgroups of very large groups, with particular application to the subgroup 47:23 of the Baby Monster. This example is completely intractable by standard or naïve methods. The example of finding 31:15 inside the Thompson group
is also discussed as a test case.
The appearance of the distinctive ‘Beaker package’ marks an important horizon in British prehistory, but was it associated with immigrants to Britain or with indigenous converts? Analysis of the skeletal remains of 264 individuals from the British Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age is revealing new information about the diet, migration and mobility of those buried with Beaker pottery and related material. Results indicate a considerable degree of mobility between childhood and death, but mostly within Britain rather than from Europe. Both migration and emulation appear to have had an important role in the adoption and spread of the Beaker package.
The assemblage of Neolithic cremated human remains from Stonehenge is the largest in Britain, and demonstrates that the monument was closely associated with the dead. New radiocarbon dates and Bayesian analysis indicate that cremated remains were deposited over a period of around five centuries from c. 3000–2500 BC. Earlier cremations were placed within or beside the Aubrey Holes that had held small bluestone standing stones during the first phase of the monument; later cremations were placed in the peripheral ditch, perhaps signifying the transition from a link between specific dead individuals and particular stones, to a more diffuse collectivity of increasingly long-dead ancestors.
The long-distance transport of the bluestones from south Wales to Stonehenge is one of the most remarkable achievements of Neolithic societies in north-west Europe. Where precisely these stones were quarried, when they were extracted and how they were transported has long been a subject of speculation, experiment and controversy. The discovery of a megalithic bluestone quarry at Craig Rhos-y-felin in 2011 marked a turning point in this research. Subsequent excavations have provided details of the quarrying process along with direct dating evidence for the extraction of bluestone monoliths at this location, demonstrating both Neolithic and Early Bronze Age activity.
The walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), vectors a fungus, Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), which colonises and kills the phloem of walnut and butternut trees, Juglans Linnaeus (Juglandaceae). Over the past two decades, this condition, known as thousand cankers disease (TCD), has led to the widespread mortality of Juglans species in the United States of America. Recently the beetle and pathogen were discovered on several Juglans species in northern Italy. Little is known about the extra-generic extent of host acceptability and suitability for the WTB. We report the occurrence of both the WTB and G. morbida in three species of wingnut, Pterocarya fraxinifolia Spach, Pterocarya rhoifolia Siebold and Zuccarini, and Pterocarya stenoptera de Candolle (Juglandaceae) growing in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository collection in northern California (NCGR) and in the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden in southern California, United States of America. In two instances (once in P. stenoptera and once in P. fraxinifolia) teneral (i.e., brood) adult WTB emerged and were collected more than four months after infested branch sections had been collected in the field. Koch’s postulates were satisfied with an isolate of G. morbida from P. stenoptera, confirming this fungus as the causal agent of TCD in this host. A survey of the 37 Pterocarya Kunth accessions at the NCGR revealed that 46% of the trees had WTB attacks and/or symptoms of G. morbida infection. The occurrence of other subcortical Coleoptera associated with Pterocarya and the first occurrence of the polyphagous shot hole borer, a species near Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Juglans are also documented.
John Allan, Consultant Archaeologist to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter Cathedral,Nat Alcock, Emeritus Reader in the Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick,David Dawson, Independent archaeologist and museum and heritage consultant