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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
A two dimensional MHD code is used to study the nonlinear evolution of the Parker instability in isolated horizontal magnetic flux imbedded in (or below) the solar photosphere. It is found that the magnetic loop expands self-similarly in the nonlinear stage. Numerical results explain many features observed in emerging flux regions.
Two-dimensional MHD simulations are performed to study the nonlinear evolution of the Parker instability in galactic gas disks. When the most unstable mode grows, magnetic field lines kink across the equatorial plane of the disk and thin spur-like structures are formed above dense regions in magnetic pockets. In low β (= ρgas/ρmag < 3) disks, shock waves are produced at the footpoint of magnetic loops, while in high β (> 3) disks, nonlinear oscillations are excited and the loop length increases with time up to λc ≃ (3.5β + 6)H, where H is the half-thickness of the disk.
We carried out global three-dimensional magnetohydrody-namical (MHD) simulations of galactic gaseous disks re-accreting intergalactic plasma. As the initial condition, we assume that a rotating slender torus is formed at 10kpc from the galactic center. We assume a gravitational potential generated by bulge stars, disk stars and dark matters. Numerical results indicate that magnetorotational instability (MRI) growing in the torus amplifies magnetic fields and generates turbulence. The Maxwell stress enhanced by turbulent magnetic fields drives mass accretion of the disk gas. The amplification of magnetic fields in the accreting gas disk drives magnetic activities such as flares and plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection. The magnetic activity is maintained for time scales longer than the accretion time scale, typically 5Gyr.
We propose a mechanism of amplification of magnetic fields and plasma heating in clusters of galaxies. Recent observations indicate the existence of ~ μG magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies (e.g., Kronberg 1994). There should be some mechanism which locally amplify magnetic fields. In clusters of galaxies, individual motions of galaxies may create locally strong field region by stretching and tangling the magnetic fields threading the galaxies. Magnetic reconnection taking place in the tangled magnetic fields may convert the kinetic energy of the galaxy motion into the inter-galactic plasma heating (Makishima 1996).
We present the results of axisymmetric, two-dimentional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of weakly ionized gas torus threaded by large scale vertical magnetic fields. The gas torus corresponds to the 100pc scale circumnuclear torus observed by HST in nearby AGNs (e.g. NGC4261) or 1010M⊙ circumnuclear gas found by CO observations in luminous IR galaxies and quasars (e.g. Scoville et al. 1991). The initial state of simulation is a constant angular momentum polytropic torus threaded by uniform vertical magnetic fields. The torus is assumed to be rotating in a static, spherical hot halo. The model parameters are Eth = vs02/(γvk02) = 5 ×10−3 and Eth = vA02/vK02 = 6.6×10−6 where γ is the adiabatic index and vs0 and va0 are the sound speed and the Alfvén speed at r = r0 respectively.
We present the results of 2.5-dimensional MHD simulations for jet formation from accretion disks in a situation such that not only ejection but also accretion of disk plasma are also included self-consistently. Although the jets in nonsteady MHD simulations (e.g., Uchida & Shibata 1985, Shibata & Uchida 1986, Matsumoto et al. 1996) have often been referred to as transient phenomena resulting from a special choice of initial conditions, we found that the characteristics of the nonsteady jets are very similar to those of steady jets: (1) The ejection point of the jet, which corresponds to slow magnetosonic point in steady MHD jet theory, is determined by the effective potential which results from the gravitational force and the centrifugal force along a field line (Blandford & Payne 1982). (2) The dependence of the velocity (vz) and mass outflow rate (Ṁω) on the initial magnetic field strength is about Ṁω ∝ B0 and vz ∝ (Ω2FB20/Ṁω)1/3, where B0 is an initial poloidal magnetic field strength, and ΩF is an ‘angular velocity of the field line’ which is nearly the same as the Keplerian angular velocity where the jet is ejected. These are consistent with those of 1D steady solution (Kudoh & Shibata 1997), although the explanation is a little complicated in the 2.5D case because of an avalanche-like accretion. We also confirm that the velocity of the jet is of order of the Keplerian velocity of the disk for a wide range of parameters. We conclude that the ejection mechanism of nonsteady jets found in the 2.5-dimensional simulations are understood with a previous theory which is studied on the assumption of steady state even when nonsteady avalanche-like accretions occur along the surface of disks.
We present a scenario for the origin of the hot plasma in our Galaxy, as a model of a strong X-ray emission (LX(2 – 10keV) ~ 1038 erg s−1), called Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), which has been observed near the Galactic plane. GRXE is thermal emission from hot component (~ 7 keV) and cool component (~ 0.8 keV). Observations suggest that the hot component is diffuse, and is not escaping away freely. Both what heats the hot component and what confines it in the Galactic ridge are still remained puzzling, while the cool component is believed to be made by supernovae. We propose a new scenario: the hot component of GRXE plasma is heated by magnetic reconnection, and confined in the helical magnetic field produced by magnetic reconnection or in the current sheet and magnetic field. We solved also the 2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically to study how the magnetic reconnection creates hot plasmas and magnetic islands (helical tubes), and how the magnetic islands confine the hot plasmas in Galaxy. We conclude that the magnetic reconnection is able to heat up the cool component to hot component of GRXE plasma if the magnetic field is localized into intense flux tube with Blocal ~ 30 μG (the volume filling factor of f ~ 0.1).
Black hole candidates sometimes show a transition between the high (or soft) state and the low (or hard) state. In the low state, low frequency time variations are much larger than the high state. A possible mechanism of the large-amplitude, sporadic time variabilities in the low-state is the magnetic energy release in low-β (β = Pgas/Pmag < 1) disks (Mineshige, Kusunose & Matsumoto 1995). It had been thought that low-β disks cannot exist because buoyant escape of magnetic flux due to the Parker instability may set the lower limit for β inside the disk. Shibata, Tajima & Matsumoto (1990), however, pointed out that in accretion disks, once a low-β disk is formed, it can stay in low-β state partly because the growth rate of the Parker instability decreases when β < 1. They suggested that magnetic accretion disks fall into two types; high-β disks and low-β disks.
The optically thin, advection-dominated accretion flows are thermally stable against global perturbations. In addition, they have high temperatures because of inefficient radiative cooling. They are thus promising candidates of models to explain the high energy emission of X-ray stars and AGNs. So far, models, however, take no account of the advective heat transport in determining the thermal structure of the electron system. The validly of this neglect, however, must be checked by integrating the electron energy equation globally as well as the ion energy one.
Intra-cluster spaces are filled with intra-cluster medium (ICM), whose typical temperature and density are TICM ~ 107.5 K and nICM ~ 10−3 cm−3, respectively (e.g., Sarazin 1988). Recent Faraday rotation measurements have revealed the existence of magnetic fields in ICM with few − 10 μG (e.g., Ge & Owen 1993). In ICM, the plasma β (the ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure) is almost “equipartition” value as follows:
We performed 2.5-dimensional, nonsteady MHD numerical simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of magnetically driven outflows from accretion disks, including the accretion process itself, consistently. As an initial condition, we used a paraboloidal magnetic field line that is produced by electric current on the equatorial plane. We found that the outflow ejected from the accretion disk is collimated by the pinch effect of the toroidal component of the magnetic field that is produced by the rotation of the disk.
Magnetically driven jets from accretion disks are considered to be the most promising models of astrophysical jets. Uchida & Shibata (1985) and Shibata & Uchida (1986) first carried out two-dimensional nonlinear MHD simulations of jet formation from a magnetized disk. Matsumoto et al. (1996) applied the Uchida-Shibata model to a gas torus in active galactic nuclei and showed that the surface layer of the torus accretes faster than the equatorial region like an avalanche because magnetic braking most effectively extracts angular momentum from that layer. A magnetized torus subjects to global non-axisymmetric instabilities (Curry & Pudritz 1996) and local magnetorotational instability (Balbus & Hawley 1991). We carried out three-dimensional global MHD simulations to show the non-axisymmetric effects on the torus, avalanche flow and jet formation.
We present the characteristics of far-infrared (FIR) brightness fluctuations at 90 μm and 170 μm in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and give constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 30 mJy at 90 μm and 50 mJy at 170 μm. The fluctuation power spectra of the FIR images are not dominated by IR cirrus, and are instead most likely due to star-forming galaxies. This analysis indicates the existence of strong evolution in the counts. Especially at 90 μm, the source density is much larger than that expected from the currently available galaxy count models. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation recently derived from an analysis of the COBE data.
Two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations have been performed to study magnetic reconnection between emerging flux and the overlying coronal magnetic field, taking into account of gravity. It is found that (1) reconnection starts when most of chromospheric mass in the current sheet between the emerging flux and the coronal field has drained down along the loop because of gravity, (2) multiple magnetic islands, which confine cool, dense chromospheric plasma, are created in the sheet; the islands coalesce dynamically and are ejected along the sheet, together with the ambient hot plasma, at Alfven speed. The coexistence of hot and cool plasmas in the mass ejection (jet) associated with the reconnection seems to explain those X-ray jets observed by Yohkoh, which are identified with Hα surges.
We have performed 1D(1.5D) and 2D(2.5D) nonsteady MHD numerical simulations of astrophysical jets which are magnetically driven from Keplerian disks, in order to clarify the origin and structure of jets ejected from protostars and active galactic nuclei. The initial and boundary conditions are similar to those of 2D(2.5D) nonsteady MHD simulations of Shibata and Uchida (1986) and Matsumoto et al. (1996); there is initially a Keplerian disk with a nonrotating corona outside, both of which are penetrated by vertical magnetic fields. The subsequent interaction between the disk/corona and the vertical fields are studied as an initial value problem. Against the current belief that this kind of simulations show simply a transient jet caused by nonsteady interaction between the disk/corona and the magnetic field, we have found that the jets ejected from the disk in this way have the same properties of the steady magnetically driven jets that were investigated by using ID steady wind solution (Kudoh & Shibata 1995), even if the jets are not exactly in steady state.