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We examined the prevalence and correlates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection according to cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) phenotype, a main virulence antigen, among the ethnically diverse population groups of Jerusalem. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Arab (N = 959) and Jewish (N = 692) adults, randomly selected from Israel's national population registry in age-sex and population strata. Sera were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Positive samples were tested for virulence IgG antibodies to recombinant CagA protein, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multinomial regression models were fitted to examine associations of sociodemographic factors with H. pylori phenotypes. H. pylori IgG antibody sero-prevalence was 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80.0%–85.5%) and 61.4% (95% CI 57.7%–65.0%) among Arabs and Jews, respectively. Among H. pylori positives, the respective CagA IgG antibody sero-positivity was 42.3% (95% CI 38.9%–45.8%) and 32.5% (95% CI 28.2%–37.1%). Among Jews, being born in the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and North Africa, vs. Israel and the Americas, was positively associated with CagA sero-positivity. In both populations, sibship size was positively associated with both CagA positive and negative phenotypes; and education was inversely associated. In conclusion, CagA positive and negative infection had similar correlates, suggesting shared sources of these two H. pylori phenotypes.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Sudden unexpected infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome, is the leading cause of death in infants one month to one year of age, in the developed world. A thorough investigation is crucial for accurate diagnosis. As part of the Diagnostic Pediatric Pathology Series, this book provides a detailed guide to various diagnoses and strong frameworks across continents, for strong support in conducting a multi-professional approach to the physiopathological mechanisms behind SIDS. Offering sensitive consideration for parents in mourning, this book rigorously explores current standards of police investigation and post-mortem, incorporating all aspects of the investigation, including the home visit, medical history and autopsy findings. Written by multidisciplinary experts, this vital guide uses clear reference tables and diagrams to present cutting-edge knowledge for use by paediatric and general pathologists, paediatricians, medico-legal practitioners, and all involved in the investigation of sudden infant death.
In order to convert residual strains measured by x-ray diffraction techniques into residual stresses, appropriate x-ray elastic constants have to be measured. Since these x-ray elastic constants may depend on the metallurgical state, deformation, and entire specimen history, errors in stress values may result if the constants are not measured for representative material states. In the present work, it is shown that in same cases these errors may be large.
Measurements on the heat affected zone of a weldment are presented using a gas filled position sensitive detector and a normal diffractometer equipped with a scintillation detector and a solid state detector. The sample, a surface ground titanium alloy, provided a difficult application for the X-ray technique from which a test of the real usefulness of the position sensitive detector could be made. The diffraction profile from the Ti alloy is very broad and the fluorescence produces a high background. The fluorescence is easily rejected using a solid state detector; however, the time of analysis is very long. With the position sensitive detector, the combination of increased energy discrimination over the scintillation detector and the simultaneous measurement of many data points over the broad peak enabled the measurements to be made for the same accuracy in much shorter times than for either the solid state detector or the scintillation detector.
Software is described for complete computer control of residual stress measurements. One program (that incorporates either the two tilt method, the sins| procedure, or the Cohen-Marion technique) has been developed for use with either a normal detector or a position sensitive detector. The operator inputs the desired error in stress and various instrumental parameters that determine systematic errors. The counting strategy to obtain the total error is then determined by the software.
Employing this automated system, an investigation of a parabolic fit to the top of a diffraction profile indicates that a three point fit is satisfactory only for sharp profiles.
We have investigated the stresses existing before and during fatigue crack growth in a 1080 spheroidized steel. The total stress state, which consists of triaxial macro- and microstress components, has been measured around the fatigue crack tip using x-ray microbeam diffraction. A tapered glass capillary of 210μm diameter has been developed to provide increased intensity, smooth diffraction peaks and good spatial resolution. Findings indicate that stresses generated by the growing crack are mainly macro stresses, and dominate over pre-existing residual stresses around the tip.
A method of Fourier analysis of x-ray line broadening is presented whereby microstrain, incoherent particle size, and fault probability can be calculated using only first-order peaks. This method can thus be used in studies of catalysts, vapor- and electrodeposits or heavily textured specimens for which second-order peaks are too broad or weak, in cases where the effect of particle size is not the same for all orders of a peak, or for multiphase specimens where overlap of peaks sometimes occurs. Examples of deformed FCG and BCC metals and alloys are presented, with comparisons to the method of multiple orders.
One part of the procedure, first demonstrated by Pines and Sirenko, provides for reducing the effects of truncation on the Fourier coefficients. As a result, larger particle sizes can be analyzed and the integrated intensity can be determined more precisely. Application to determinations of volume fraction are given.