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Foodborne salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the United States. In the summer of 2017, we investigated four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with Maradol papayas imported from four Mexican farms. PulseNet initially identified a cluster of Salmonella Kiambu infections in June 2017, and early interviews identified papayas as an exposure of interest. Investigators from Maryland, Virginia and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected papayas for testing. Several strains of Salmonella were isolated from papayas sourced from Mexican Farm A, including Salmonella Agona, Gaminara, Kiambu, Thompson and Senftenberg. Traceback from two points of service associated with illness sub-clusters in two states identified Farm A as a common source of papayas, and three voluntary recalls of Farm A papayas were issued. FDA sampling isolated four additional Salmonella strains from papayas sourced from Mexican Farms B, C and D. In total, four outbreaks were identified, resulting in 244 cases with illness onset dates from 20 December 2016 to 20 September 2017. The sampling of papayas and the collaborative work of investigative partners were instrumental in identifying the source of these outbreaks and preventing additional illnesses. Evaluating epidemiological, laboratory and traceback evidence together during investigations is critical to solving and stopping outbreaks.
Unicellular flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligatory parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants. Dixenous species are aetiological agents of a number of diseases in humans, domestic animals and plants. Their monoxenous relatives are restricted to insects. Because of the high biological diversity, adaptability to dramatically different environmental conditions, and omnipresence, these protists have major impact on all biotic communities that still needs to be fully elucidated. In addition, as these organisms represent a highly divergent evolutionary lineage, they are strikingly different from the common ‘model system’ eukaryotes, such as some mammals, plants or fungi. A number of excellent reviews, published over the past decade, were dedicated to specialized topics from the areas of trypanosomatid molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, host–parasite relationships or other aspects of these fascinating organisms. However, there is a need for a more comprehensive review that summarizing recent advances in the studies of trypanosomatids in the last 30 years, a task, which we tried to accomplish with the current paper.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
We report on the results of coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) and ptychography measurements of two individual core-shell-shell GaAs/(In,Ga)As/GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si(111) substrate. CXDI at the axial GaAs 111 Bragg reflection was applied at different positions along the NW axis in order to characterize the NWs in terms of structural homogeneity along the radial directions. At each positon 3D reciprocal space maps have been recoded and inverted using phase retrieval algorithms. The CXDI were complemented by 2D ptychography measurements at GaAs 111 Bragg reflection probing the same NWs with respect to their structural homogeneity. Both methods provide structural homogeneity for NW1 and NW2 except at the bottom part of the NWs. In case of NW2 CXDI and ptychography show changes in the structure of the top part of the NW indicated by 60° rotation of the indicated three-fold rotational symmetry in the observed diffraction patterns and changes in the strain field reconstructed from ptychography.
Service utilisation by refugee families may be affected by the mismatch between Western individualistic service delivery approaches and the target communities’ more collectivist cultural patterns and practices. In addition to access barriers, utilisation of early childhood services by refugees can also be impacted upon by distrust of services, health and settlement issues, stigma, unfamiliarity with early childhood programmes, and fear of child protection and other legal systems. This low service utilisation sits in conflict with the need for early interventions for very young children, who are in the peak period of brain development. This article explores the implementation of a model to address these issues in early childhood work with refugee families and communities, with the intent to increase service uptake. Some strategies to address potential barriers will be described in the context of a community engagement model that includes consultation, relationship building, collaborative flexible service design and delivery, partnerships in community capacity building and cross-referral. Flexible, culturally appropriate interventions can enhance strengths based, non-pathologising and development-focused approach. A community engagement approach will, nevertheless, present challenges for service providers who must be willing to adapt their practices. Services and funding bodies need to recognise that this process is lengthy and resource intensive, but will ultimately lead to better service delivery and uptake, potentially leading to improvements in health, development and relational outcomes, for children and families from refugee backgrounds.
We report on a wide-range Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigation of the g-C3N4 photocatalysis systems combined with metals/nonmetals, especially those available in plants and involved in the natural photosynthesis process, such as K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Fe, Co, Cr, S and B. It is found that doping increases the range at which light absorption occurs to significantly large regions of the visible spectrum. These findings suggested that the g-C3N4 can be a promising system for the photosynthesis process.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
This paper reports five cases of aberrant cochlear implant electrode array insertion into the vestibular labyrinth. A review of the literature was conducted in order to clarify reasonable preventive and detection strategies and endorse the routine use of intra-operative plain skull X-ray.
The study entailed a clinical case series and literature review. The setting was a tertiary academic referral centre. The following data were evaluated: pre-operative temporal bone computed tomography, operative reports, intra-operative imaging, neural response telemetry/imaging and post-operative imaging.
There were no consistent pre-operative risk factors found on computed tomography scans and no reliable intra-operative signs of electrode array misdirection. All misdirections in our case series, and those in the literature, were easily detectable on intra-operative plain film X-ray.
These reported cases demonstrate implant misdirection without the surgeon's awareness. Aberrant insertion cannot be anticipated, and neural response telemetry/imaging is not a reliable indicator of misdirection. Routine intra-operative anteroposterior plain X-ray of the head is a reliable indicator of misdirection, and is fast and relatively inexpensive.
A systematic x-ray diffraction (XRD) study was performed on room-temperature Xe-irradiated and postirradiation annealed CeO2. Large scale XRD did not show any additional irradiation-induced phases upon irradiation. Depth profiling the CeO2 (111) diffraction peak over the 150 nm deep Xe-irradiated layer (400 keV, 1 × 1020 Xe/m2) by grazing incidence XRD indicated a lattice expansion at the irradiated layer. Postirradiation annealing (1 h at 1000 °C) in an oxygen-containing environment removed the observed XRD features. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was performed for cross-sectional samples before and after postirradiation annealing. EELS showed that the Ce charge state changed from +4 to +3 at the CeO2 surface indicating the presence of O vacancies in both as-irradiated and annealed samples. EELS also indicated that the amount of O vacancies was reduced at the irradiated region by annealing. The experimental results are discussed based on electronic properties of CeO2, annihilation of oxygen vacancies, and evolution of irradiation damage.
Covalent functionalization of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 via click chemistry reaction has been performed. The hybrid system was characterized by flash photolysis and infrared spectroscopy and the RC was found to retain its photoactivity and structural integrity. The strategy is applicable for the fabrication of hybrid bio-electronic devices capable of absorbing and converting solar energy.
To determine whether a threshold apparent diffusion coefficient value may help to differentiate laryngeal carcinomas from benign lesions.
Fifty-three patients with laryngeal masses were recruited; four of them were excluded because of susceptibility artefacts. In the remaining 49 patients, the pathological results showed 32 laryngeal carcinomas and 17 benign lesions. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the identification of malignant lesions was determined. In addition, the agreement between diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology was assessed. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the apparent diffusion coefficient in detecting benign and malignant lesions were analysed. An apparent diffusion coefficient histogram was also produced.
An apparent diffusion coefficient value of 1.1 × 10−3 mm2/second produced the best result when used as the cut-off point to differentiate malignant from benign masses.
An apparent diffusion coefficient threshold of 1.1 × 10−3 mm2/second is optimal for distinguishing laryngeal carcinomas from benign lesions. Apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinomas than for those with benign lesions.
The early Miocene site of Wadi Moghra, Qattara Depression, Egypt, is important for interpreting anthracothere (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) evolution, because the Moghra sediments preserve a higher diversity of anthracotheres than any other pene-contemporaneous site. New specimens from Moghra are described and form the basis for the systematic revision of Moghra anthracotheres provided here. Among the important discoveries recently made at Moghra is the first complete skull of Sivameryx moneyi. Other new specimens described here include two new species of Afromeryx, and a new genus and species, all of which are unique to Moghra. A review of biogeographic information supports the conclusion that three of the Moghra anthracotheres (Brachyodus depereti, B. mogharensis, and Jaggermeryx naida, n. gen. n. sp.) are members of late surviving lineages with a long history in Africa, while three other species (Afromeryx grex, n. sp., A. palustris, n. sp., and Sivameryx moneyi) represent more recent immigrants from Eurasia.
The covalent functionalization of photosynthetic proteins with properly tailored organic molecular antennas represents a powerful approach to build a new generation of hybrid systems capable of exploiting solar energy. In this paper the strategy for the synthesis of the tailored aryleneethynylene organic fluorophore (AE) properly designed to act as light harvesting antenna is presented along with its successful bioconjugation to the photosynthetic reaction center RC from the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides .
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20·4% and 24·8%, respectively. From 151 trunk-wash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is dramatically changing the landscape of high performance computing in astronomy. In this paper, we identify and investigate several key decision areas, with a goal of simplifying the early adoption of GPGPU in astronomy. We consider the merits of OpenCL as an open standard in order to reduce risks associated with coding in a native, vendor-specific programming environment, and present a GPU programming philosophy based on using brute force solutions. We assert that effective use of new GPU-based supercomputing facilities will require a change in approach from astronomers. This will likely include improved programming training, an increased need for software development best practice through the use of profiling and related optimisation tools, and a greater reliance on third-party code libraries. As with any new technology, those willing to take the risks and make the investment of time and effort to become early adopters of GPGPU in astronomy, stand to reap great benefits.
The prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners is considerably higher than in the general population. This is an important public health issue as the vast majority of prisoners stay in custody for less than 9 months and, when not in prison, offenders' lifestyles are frequently chaotic, characterized by social exclusion, instability and unemployment. Multi-disciplinary mental health inreach services were introduced to target care towards prisoners with severe mental illness (SMI) in a similar way to that provided by Community Mental Health Teams outside prison. The aim was to establish the proportion of prisoners with SMI who were assessed and managed by prison mental health inreach services.
A two-phase prevalence survey in six prisons in England measured SMI upon reception into custody. Case-note review established the proportion of those with SMI subsequently assessed and treated by inreach services.
Of 3492 prisoners screened, 23% had SMI. Inreach teams assessed only 25% of these unwell prisoners, and accepted just 13% onto their caseloads.
Inreach teams identified and managed only a small proportion of prisoners with SMI. Prison-based services need to improve screening procedures and develop effective care pathways to ensure access to appropriate services. Improved identification of mental illness is needed in both the community and the Criminal Justice System to better engage with socially transient individuals who have chaotic lifestyles and complex needs.