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p53, DNA damage regulated gene (PDRG) and apoptosis-stimulating p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) are p53-related genes which can promote apoptosis. The full-length cDNA sequence of the Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 genes were characterized and their mRNA expression dynamics under heat stress were studied in diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella collected from Fuzhou, China. The full-length cDNA of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 spans 721 and 4201 bp, containing 395 and 3216 bp of the open reading frame, which encode a putative protein comprising 130 and 1072 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 14.58 and 118.91 kDa, respectively. As compared to 25°C, both Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 were upregulated in chlorpyrifos-resistant (Rc) and -susceptible (Sm) strains of DBM adults and pupae under heat stress. In addition, Rc DBM showed a significantly higher expression level of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 in contrast to Sm DBM. The results indicate that high temperature can significantly promote apoptosis process, especially in Rc-DBM. Significant fitness cost in Rc-DBM might be associated with drastically higher transcript abundance of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 under the heat stress.
The Upper Ordovician Sandbian to Katian strata from the East Qilianshan (northeastern Tibet Plateau) bear a graptolite fauna of moderately high diversity. Graptolites from the Amplexograptus maxwelli beds to the Appendispinograptus longispinus Biozone (Sa2–Ka4 intervals) proposed herein include 27 species of 13 genera. This important graptolite fauna is first described herein although it was initially reported in 1963. Most of them occur in the A. longispinus Biozone corresponding to the Dicellograptus complexus to Paraorthograptus pacificus biozones of the Wufeng Formation in the Yangtze region. Alulagraptus new genus is established based on the materials from the East Qiqiaogou section. The endemic species, e.g., Alulagraptus ensiformis (Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963), Dicellograptus sinicus Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, and Climacograptus? papilio Mu and Zhang in Mu et al., 1963, could indicate that East Qilianshan block was separated from South China.
We present an experimental study of the reversal of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in quasi-two-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. It is found that there exists a transition in the Rayleigh number (
) dependence of the reversal rate
with two distinct scalings: for
less than a transitional value
, the non-dimensionalized reversal rate
; however, for higher
the scaling changes to
is the turnover time of the LSC. Flow visualization shows that this regime transition originates from a change in flow topology from a single-roll state to a new, less stable, abnormal single-roll state with substructures inside the single roll. The emergence of the substructures inside the LSC lowers the energy barrier for the flow reversals to occur and leads to a slower decay of
. Detailed analysis reveals that, although it is the corner rolls that trigger the reversal event, the probability for the occurrence of reversals mainly depends on the stability of the LSC. This is supported by a model we proposed to predict the critical condition for the transition, which agrees well with the experimental results.
As a benchmark mortality model in forecasting future mortality rates and hedging longevity risk, the widely employed Lee–Carter model (Lee, R.D. and Carter, L.R. (1992) Modeling and forecasting U.S. mortality. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 87, 659–671.) suffers from a restrictive constraint on the unobserved mortality index for ensuring model’s identification and a possible inconsistent inference. Recently, a modified Lee–Carter model (Liu, Q., Ling, C. and Peng, L. (2018) Statistical inference for Lee–Carter mortality model and corresponding forecasts. North American Actuarial Journal, to appear.) removes this constraint and a simple least squares estimation is consistent with a normal limit when the mortality index follows from a unit root or near unit root AR(1) model with a nonzero intercept. This paper proposes a bias-corrected estimator for this modified Lee–Carter model, which is consistent and has a normal limit regardless of the mortality index being a stationary or near unit root or unit root AR(1) process with a nonzero intercept. Applications to the US mortality rates and a simulation study are provided as well.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
This paper presents a novel balanced-to-balanced power divider (PD) based on a simple and compact three-line coupled structure for the first time. By bisecting the proposed symmetrical structure, the differential mode (DM) and the common mode (CM) equivalent circuits can be obtained for analysis. The DM equivalent circuit exhibits a three-line in-phase power dividing response, and then a resistor is added between the two outputs for achieving good isolation. Meanwhile, the CM equivalent circuit shows a three-line all-stop response so that the CM suppression in this design does not need to be considered. Accordingly, the detailed design procedure of the DM PD is given. For demonstration, a prototype centered at 1.95 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. The simulated and measured results with good agreement are presented, showing low DM loss and wideband CM suppression.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
X-ray powder diffraction data for (S)-methyl-2-hexanamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate, C16H23NO4, are reported [a = 17.795(4) Å, b = 15.101(1) Å, c = 12.746(3) Å, unit-cell volume V = 3425.51 Å3, Z = 8, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed. The single crystallographic data of the compound are also reported [a = 12.5998(3) Å, b = 17.6856(5) Å, c = 14.6711(5) Å, unit-cell volume V = 3269.25(16) Å3, Z = 8, and space group P212121]. Because of the single-crystal diffraction data were measured at low temperature (110 K), the cell parameters, volume, and calculated density of single-crystal experiment have slight differences with powder diffraction results.
In this paper, the spacecraft close-range safe proximity problem is investigated. In the presence of a “chief” spacecraft, a Multi-Equal-Collision-Probability-Curve (MECPC) method is developed. The influence of the chief spacecraft with a convex polygon shape is considered and the chief spacecraft is divided into several small components. Each component generates a corresponding separate repulsive force and the superposition of these forces is regarded as the ultimate avoidance force. As a result, the proposed MECPC method not only improves the system robustness against control and navigation uncertainties but is also analytically validated in collision avoidance. The MECPC method solves the safe proximity problem in the presence of a convex polygon shape. In addition, an Improved Linear Quadratic Regulator (ILQR) is designed to track the expected trajectory. Numerical simulations are performed in a close-range operation environment to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MECPC method.
(1 − x)Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3–xBa(Co1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMT–BCN, x = 0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40) ceramics were prepared using the traditional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that the intensities of (001) and (100) super-lattices decrease with the increase in the BCN content. Seven main Raman vibrational modes are observed, assigned, and illustrated, in particular. Raman shifts of Eg(O) modes and the FWHM values of F2g(O)/A1g(O) modes have close relationship with the dielectric properties. The calculated values by the four-parameter semiquantum model based on IR reflectivity match well with the measured data (@3.8 GHz), which means that most of dielectric contribution to the system may be ascribed to the absorption of structural phononic oscillations at the infrared region, and the contribution from the scattering of the defective phonons is small. The contributions of each vibrational mode on the dielectric responses were investigated in detail, indicating that the low-frequency modes (A2u(1) and Eu(1)) have a decisive role to the dielectric properties.
The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms.
A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs. Associations between functional connectivity and clinical features in OCD were analyzed.
Compared with HCs, OCD patients showed significantly decreased cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in executive control and emotion processing networks. Within the OCD group, decreased functional connectivity in an executive network spanning the right cerebellar Crus I and the inferior parietal lobule was positively correlated with symptom severity, and decreased connectivity in an emotion processing network spanning the left cerebellar lobule VI and the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with illness duration.
Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion regulation in this condition.
A carbohydrate-rich diet results in hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia; it may further induce the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese population is quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, total fibre, starch, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in relation to colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2017, recruiting 1944 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 2027 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. There was no clear association between total carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted OR was 0·85 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·03, Ptrend=0·08) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Total fibre was related to a 53 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk (adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 0·47; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·58). However, dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted ORquartile 4 v. 1 of 3·10 (95 % CI 2·51, 3·85). No significant association was found between the intakes of non-fibre carbohydrate, starch and dietary GL and colorectal cancer risk. This study indicated that dietary GI was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no evidence supported that total carbohydrate, non-fibre carbohydrate, starch or high dietary GL intake were related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
Metallic materials are key for electrochemical energy conversion and storage when they are tailored into electrodes designed for rapid reaction kinetics, high electrical conductivities, and high stability. Nanoporous metals formed by dealloying could meet all of these requirements, as the dealloyed products beckon energy researchers with their fascinating structures and outstanding performance. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of dealloyed materials related to their functions in energy devices. We then review nanoporous metal electrodes for applications in fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries to provide insights into selection and design criteria for meeting the diverse needs of energy conversion and storage.