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There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
The aims of this study were to examine the spillover effects of violent attacks, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and their interactions on health professionals’ mental health, and the role of organizational support in their relationships in China. A two-phase survey data (n = 10,901) before and after the first outbreak of COVID-19 was integrated with regional macro data on the number of lawsuit cases of violent attacks and COVID-19 cases. Three studies were designed to isolate the general spillover impact of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, how COVID-19 affects the mental health of health professionals, and whether organizational support moderates the relationship between violent attacks and mental health through econometric regressions. Violent attacks and COVID-19 are negatively associated with the mental health of health professionals, and the outbreak of COVID-19 adversely deteriorates the spillover effects of violent attacks. Physicians, not nurses, are the most affected group. Better perceived support from hospitals can significantly mitigate the adverse effects of COVID-19, violent attacks, and their interactions on the mental health of health professionals. COVID-19 deteriorates the adverse effects of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, while better organizational support is helpful to mitigate these effects.
Hepatitis E virus infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis, typically self-limiting but occasionally leading to liver failure. Understanding disease progression factors could inform prevention strategies. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of a large cohort of hospitalised hepatitis E patients in Tianjin, China, and explore factors influencing their progression to liver failure. A total of 1279 hospitalised patients with hepatitis E were included in this cross-sectional study in Tianjin, China. Student's t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test were used for comparisons. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. Among these 1279 patients, 107 (8.4%) developed liver failure. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.150–2.887, p = 0.011), liver cirrhosis (95% [CI] 2.229–7.224, p < 0.001), and hepatitis B (95% [CI] 1.159–4.512, p = 0.017) were more likely to progress to liver failure. Hepatitis E patients with comorbid DM, liver cirrhosis, or hepatitis B virus co-infection have higher risks of developing liver failure. Hepatitis E vaccination may be recommended for these vulnerable patients to curb disease severity.
The effects of monolaurin (ML) on the health of piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate its role in blood biochemical profile, intestinal barrier function, antioxidant function and the expression of antiviral genes in piglets infected with PEDV. Thirty-two piglets were randomly divided into four groups: control group, ML group, PEDV group and ML + PEDV group. Piglets were orally administrated with ML at a dose of 100 mg/kg·BW for 7 d before PEDV infection. Results showed that PEDV infection significantly decreased D-xylose content and increased intestinal fatty acid-binding protein content, indicating that PEDV infection destroyed intestinal barrier and absorption function. While it could be repaired by ML administration. Moreover, ML administration significantly decreased plasma blood urea nitrogen and total protein content upon PEDV infection. These results suggested ML may increase protein utilisation efficiency. ML administration significantly decreased the number of large unstained cells and Hb and increased the number of leucocytes and eosinophils in the blood of PEDV-infected piglets, indicating ML could improve the immune defense function of the body. In the presence of PEDV infection, ML administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in blood and colon, respectively, indicating ML could improve antioxidant capacity. Besides, ML administration reversed the expression of ISG15, IFIT3 and IL-29 throughout the small intestine and Mx1 in jejunum and ileum, indicating the body was in recovery from PEDV infection. This study suggests that ML could be used as a kind of feed additive to promote swine health upon PEDV infection.
An 8-week experiment was performed to investigate the influence on growth performance, plasma biochemistry, glucose metabolism and the insulin pathway of supplementation of dietary taurine to a high-carbohydrate diet for grass carp. In this study, fish were fed diets at one of two carbohydrate levels, 31·49 % (positive control) or 38·61 % (T00). The high-carbohydrate basal diet (T00), without taurine, was supplemented with 0·05 % (T05), 0·10 % (T10), 0·15 % (T15) or 0·20 % (T20) taurine, resulting in six isonitrogenous (30·37 %) and isolipidic (2·37 %) experimental diets. The experimental results showed that optimal taurine level improved significantly weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed utilisation, reduced plasma total cholesterol levels, TAG and promoted insulin-like growth factor level. Glucokinase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities showed a quadratic function model with increasing dietary taurine level, while hexokinase, fatty acid synthetase activities exhibited a positive linear trend. Optimal taurine supplementation in high-carbohydrate diet upregulated insulin receptor (Ir), insulin receptor substrate (Irs1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pi3k), protein kinase B (akt1), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (gs3kβ) mRNA level and downregulated insulin-like growth factor (igf-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf-1R) and Fork head transcription factor 1 (foxo1) mRNA level. The above results suggested that optimal taurine level could improve growth performance, hepatic capacity for glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus enhancing the utilisation of carbohydrates in grass carp. Based on SGR, dietary optimal tributyrin taurine supplementation in grass carp was estimated to be 0·08 %.
Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) participates in multiple biological processes. However, the biological functions of Tollip proteins in insects remain to be further explored. Here, the genomic sequence of tollip gene from Antheraea pernyi (named Ap-Tollip) was identified with a length of 15,060 bp, including eight exons and seven introns. The predicted Ap-Tollip protein contained conserved C2 and CUE domains and was highly homologous to those tollips from invertebrates. Ap-Tollip was highly expressed in fat body compared with other determined tissues. As far as the developmental stages were concerned, the highest expression level was found at the 14th day in eggs or the 3rd day of the 1st instar. Ap-Tollip was also obviously regulated by lipopolysaccharide, polycytidylic acid or 20E in different tissues. In addition, the interaction between Ap-Tollip and ubiquitin was confirmed by western blotting and pull-down assay. RNAi of Ap-Tollip significantly affected the expression levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes. These results indicated that Ap-Tollip was involved in immunity and development of A. pernyi.
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. With the deepening of clinical application, the research on its plant resources has attracted much attention. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of distinct germination during Pulsatilla seed development are still mostly unknown. Therefore, in this study, four germination stages of P. chinensis seeds, with obvious differences in seed appearance traits, were used as materials. Transcriptome sequencing technology was used to analyse the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. A total of 27,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (six different groups) were determined. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, photosynthesis–antenna proteins, plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis and other pathways. A total of 87 DEGs was enriched in phytohormone signal transduction pathways, including auxin (25), abscisic acid (13), gibberellin (6), ethylene (9) and cytokinin (7). Furthermore, a protein–protein interaction network was constructed using these DEGs. Some DEGs were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. This comprehensive analysis provided basic information on the key genes of plant hormone signal transduction pathways involved in the seed germination process of P. chinensis (Bunge) Regel.
In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
The grey wolf optimizer (GWO) as a new intelligent optimization algorithm has been successfully applied in many fields because of its simple structure, few adjustment parameters and easy implementation. This paper mainly aims at the defects of GWO in path planning application, such as easily falling into local optimization, poor convergence and poor accuracy, and turn point grey wolf optimization (TPGWO) algorithm is proposed. First, the idea of cross-mutation and roulette is used to increase the initial population of GWO and improve the search range. At the same time, the convergence factor function is improved to become a nonlinear update. In the early stage, the search range is expanded, and in the later stage, the convergence speed is increased, while the parameters in the convergence factor function can be adjusted according to the number of obstacles and the map area to change the turning point of the function to improve the convergence speed and accuracy of the algorithm. The turning times and turning angles of the obtained path are added to the fitness function as penalty values to improve the path accuracy. The optimization test is carried out through 16 test functions, and the test results prove the convergence and robustness of TPGWO algorithm. Finally, the TPGWO algorithm is applied to the path planning of patrol robot for simulation experiments. Compared with the GWO algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, the simulation results show that the TPGWO algorithm has better convergence, stability and accuracy in the path planning of patrol robot.
Parametric interaction allows both forward and backward energy transfers among the three interacting waves. The back-conversion effect is usually detrimental when unidirectional energy transfer is desired. In this theoretical work, we manifest that the back-conversion effect underpins the direct generation of the picosecond pulse train without the need for a laser resonator. The research scenario is an optical parametric amplification (OPA) that consists of a second-order nonlinear medium, a quasi-continuous pump laser and a sinusoidal amplitude-modulated seed signal. The back-conversion of OPA can transfer the modulation peaks (valleys) of the incident signal into output valleys (peaks), which inherently induces spectral sidebands. The generation of each sideband is naturally accompanied with a phase shift of ±π. In the regime of full-back-conversion, the amount and amplitude of the sidebands reach the maximum simultaneously, and their phase constitutes an arithmetic sequence, leading to the production of a picosecond pulse train. The generated picosecond pulse train can have an ultrahigh repetition rate of 40 GHz or higher, which may facilitate ultrafast applications with ultrahigh speed.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
Extensive research has shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that is a heritable disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of CBF abnormalities in MDD.
To achieve a more thorough characterization of CBF changes in MDD, we performed a comprehensive neuroimaging meta-analysis of previous literature as well as examined group CBF differences in an independent sample of 133 MDD patients and 133 controls. In combination with the Allen Human Brain Atlas, transcriptome-neuroimaging spatial association analyses were conducted to identify genes whose expression correlated with CBF changes in MDD, followed by a set of gene functional feature analyses.
We found increased CBF in the reward circuitry and default-mode network and decreased CBF in the visual system in MDD patients. Moreover, these CBF changes were spatially associated with expression of 1532 genes, which were enriched for important molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components of the cerebral cortex as well as several common mental disorders. Concurrently, these genes were specifically expressed in the brain tissue, in immune cells and neurons, and during nearly all developmental stages. Regarding behavioral relevance, these genes were associated with domains involving emotion and sensation. In addition, these genes could construct a protein-protein interaction network supported by 60 putative hub genes with functional significance.
Our findings suggest a cerebral perfusion redistribution in MDD, which may be a consequence of complex interactions of a wide range of genes with diverse functional features.
Previous research has shown that using foreign languages reduces cognitive biases. Here, we investigate whether this foreign-language effect extends to self-related cognition – in particular, the self-positivity bias, which refers to automatic association of oneself with positive information and has a facilitation role in maintaining mental health. We applied event-related brain potentials and oscillations in the implicit association test where Chinese–English bilinguals responded to category words (self vs. others) and attribute words (positive vs. negative) in either their native language Chinese or their foreign language English. In response to Chinese words, a self-positivity bias occurred, indexed by a positive D-score in reaction times as well as by smaller N200, larger P3-like/LPC responses, and lower alpha desynchronization when self words were associated with positive relative to negative traits. However, the bias was diminished in the English context. Overall, our findings provide important implications for language choices when self-protective mechanisms should be enhanced.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.
Transbronchial lung biopsy is an effective and less-invasive treatment for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. However, the limited dexterity of existing endoscopic instruments and the complexity of bronchial access prevent the application of such procedures mainly for biopsy and diagnosis. This paper proposes a flexible robot for transbronchial lung biopsy with a cable-driven mechanism-based flexible manipulator. The robotic system of transbronchial lung biopsy is presented in detail, including the snake-bone end effector, the flexible catheters and the actuation unit. The kinematic analysis of the snake-bone end effector is conducted for the master-slave control. The experimental results show that the end effector reaches the target nodule through a narrow and tortuous pathway in a bronchial model. In conclusion, the proposed robotic system contributes to the field of advanced endoscopic surgery with high flexibility and controllability.
Previous research indicates that parental emotion socialization (ES) practices play important roles in adolescents’ social and emotional development. However, longitudinal studies testing bidirectional effects are relatively scarce. Additionally, most studies have focused on people from Western societies. In the current 3-year, multi-informant, longitudinal study of Chinese adolescents and their parents, we investigated prospective bidirectional effects between parental positive ES practices and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms). Adolescents (N = 710 at T1, 50% boys, Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.59) reported on parental positive ES practices and their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem when they were in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. Mothers and fathers reported on their own use of positive ES practices at all three time points. We utilized a random intercept cross-lagged panel model to examine between- and within-family effects. Overall results showed robust effects of adolescent depressive symptoms on parental positive ES practices and bidirectional effects between parental ES and adolescent self-esteem. Effects differed by informants whether using adolescent-perceived data, or mother- or father-reported data. However, these child effects and bidirectional effects did not differ by adolescent sex. Our findings add to the understanding of parental ES and adolescent psychosocial adjustment.
We examine the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and job satisfaction, drawing on the ‘too much of a good thing’ theory, to establish whether a non-linear relationship can explain conflicts in previous findings. Moreover, we extend the study by exploring the mediating role of work overload and the moderating role of person–organization fit (P–O fit). Based on a cross-sectional data set of 220 employees and a longitudinal data set of 373 employees from organizations in China, the empirical findings show an inverted U-shaped relationship between HPWS and job satisfaction. Results also indicate that the relationship between HPWS and job satisfaction is fully mediated by work overload, and that P–O fit negatively moderates HPWS-work overload and HPWS-job satisfaction relationships. These results shed new light on how HPWS impacts employee outcomes and practical implications for managers are discussed.