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A new and an essential reference work for any international human rights law academic, student or practitioner, A Commentary on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights spans all substantive rights of the ICCPR, as approached from the perspective of the ICCPR as an interated, coherent scheme of rights protection. In detailed coverage of the Human Rights Committee's output when monitoring ICCPR compliance, Paul M. Taylor offers extraordinary access to 40 years of its concluding observations Views and General Comments organised thematically. This Commentary is a solid and practical introduction to any and all of the civil and political rights in the ICCPR, and a rare resource explaining the requirements for domestic implementation of ICCPR standards. An indispensable research tool for any serious enquirer into the subject, the Commentary speaks to the accomplishments of the ICCPR in striving for universal human rights standards.
The Vertical Agreements Regulation may be judged in one of two ways, each yielding a different conclusion. It may be regarded, on the one hand, merely as a limited measure required at a particular time in the development of competition policy to correct some of the more obvious errors of previous Regulations. On the other hand, it may be assessed for its potential as a template for future Regulations. Is it to be regarded as a means of rectifying historic block exemptions or is it at the cutting edge of progressive policy? Without doubt it appears chronologically at one of the most important shifts in competition policy in decades and that is why there is much to be gained from reviewing the Regulation critically for improvements that can be carried forward into future Regulations.
Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are not only common and distressing, but are also typically poorly managed in general medical settings. Those suffering from these problems tend to incur significantly higher health costs than the general population. There are many effective treatments for different MUS; these are almost entirely based on cognitive-behavioural approaches. However, the wide range of treatment protocols tend to be ‘syndrome specific’. As such, they do not generalise well in terms of training and application, making them expensive and difficult to disseminate, suggesting the desirability of developing a transdiagnostic approach. The general basis of such a CBT grounded transdiagnostic approach is considered, and the particular need to incorporate cognitive elements of both anxiety or health anxiety (threat) and depression (loss) is highlighted. Key empirically grounded and evidence-based processes (both specific and general) previously identified as underpinning the maintenance of MUS are delineated. The way in which these can be combined in a transdiagnostic model that accounts for most MUS presentations is presented and linked to a formulation-driven transdiagnostic treatment strategy, which is described. However, the need to take more syndrome-specific issues into account in treatment is identified, suggesting that the optimum treatment may be a hybrid transdiagnostic/specific approach with formulation, shared understanding, belief change strategies, and behavioural experiments at its heart. The generalisation of such approaches to psychological problems occurring in the context of ‘long-term conditions’ is identified as a further important development that is now within reach.
Up to 13% of psychiatric patients are readmitted shortly after discharge. Interventions that ensure successful transitions to community care may play a key role in preventing early readmission.
To describe and evaluate interventions applied during the transition from in-patient to out-patient care in preventing early psychiatric readmission.
Systematic review of transitional interventions among adults admitted to hospital with mental illness where the study outcome was psychiatric readmission.
The review included 15 studies with 15 non-overlapping intervention components. Absolute risk reductions of 13.6 to 37.0% were observed in statistically significant studies. Effective intervention components were: pre- and post-discharge patient psychoeducation, structured needs assessments, medication reconciliation/education, transition managers and in-patient/out-patient provider communication. Key limitations were small sample size and risk of bias.
Many effective transitional intervention components are feasible and likely to be cost-effective. Future research can provide direction about the specific components necessary and/or sufficient for preventing early psychiatric readmission.
Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–10)
Visual hallucinations are well recognized in individuals with low vision and intact cognition (Charles Bonnet syndrome) (Teunisse et al., 1996). Visual hallucinations also occur in those with early manifestations of dementia with Lewy bodies (McKeith et al., 2005) and Parkinson's disease dementia (Williams and Lees, 2005). Typically, visual hallucinations in these conditions are complex recurrent hallucinations of people and animals and frequently reported as being unpleasant (Mosimann et al., 2006). Individuals with visual hallucinations are often reluctant to disclose details of their symptoms (Menon, 2005), but may instead report non-specific visual difficulties to their family physician or optometrist, resulting in referral to an eye clinic. Failure to elicit the presence of visual hallucinations may lead to inappropriate treatment of age-related ocular comorbidity, such as early cataract.
Preliminary results are presented for a new approach proposed by the present investigators to solve the problem of light-induced degradation in amorphous silicon semiconductors. The approach uses low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LTMOCVD) of tailored organometallic precursors. The precursors employed are non-toxic, non-hazardous and easy to handle. In the present paper, a-Si:H films were grown, using argon with various hydrogen concentrations as carrier gas, in a cold-wall CVD reactor at a reactor pressure of 1-10 torr and substrate temperature in the range 300–450°C. Characterization studies were performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and extended electron-energy-loss fine structure spectroscopy (EXELFS). The results of these studies showed that the films were uniform, continuous, adherent and highly pure--contaminant levels were below the detection limits of XPS. In addition, EXELFS results showed that short-range order (SRO), consisting of the same tetrahedral coordinated units found in crystalline silicon, does exist in all the amorphous samples, regardless of hydrogen concentration. However, the degree of stuctural disorder in the silicon local tetrahedral units decreased as hydrogen was added.
High density, non-porous, highly photoconductive films of undoped a-Ge:H showing minimal microstructure have been prepared out of an r.f. glow discharge of GeH4 on substrates mounted on the powered electrode of a diode reactor. These films, prepared under the systematic variation of substrate temperature, discharge power and dilution of the plasma by H2 are markedly different from those produced on the unpowered electrode. An optimum level of applied power is found which does not differ significantly from that used to prepare state-of-the-art a-Si:H. For the reactor geometry used, dilution of the plasma with H2 is found to be essential to the preparation of high quality a-Ge:H. These films contain similar amounts of bound hydrogen to that found in good a-Si:H, and also relatively large quantities of unbound hydrogen. Transport is activated with a Fermi level near mid-gap, the dangling bond spin density is 5 × 1016 spins/cm3, and the samples exhibit photoluminescence. The electron μÄ has been measured using the TOF technique. The conditions for preparation of optimized material are quite different for those found to optimize the preparation of high quality a-Si:H in this reactor. This is asserted to be a principal cause for our finding, along with other laboratories, of inferior properties for a-SiGe:H alloys when compared with those of a-Si:H.
A series of glow discharge a-Ge:H films has been produced at substrate temperatures, Ts, between 100 and 350°C. The films were structurally characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Gas Evolution (GE), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The DSC and GE results are substrate dependent. Two exothermic peaks are seen in DSC spectra for films deposited on aluminum foil while only one peak, identified by Raman measurements as the crystallization peak, is seen for samples deposited on beryllium, NaCl, carbon coated mica, crystalline silicon and 7059 glass. The crystallization peak temperature of films deposited on 7059 glass decreases with increasing Ts until 250°C where it then remains constant up to Ts=350°C. GE results show a relative increase of high temperature evolution with an increase in Ts. A well defined island/tissue structure seen in TEM micrographs of low Ts films disappears at higher Ts values. SEM measurements show columnar structure present only in films produced at Ts≤250°C. All the structural measurements point to a more stable material of higher density for Ts>250°C.
Amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si TFTs) have been fabricated by using an a-Si layer deposited by low-temperature thermal-CVD method using higher silanes. The TFT with thermally grown SiO2 gate was operated in both the n-channel mode and the p-channel mode. The maximum field-effect mobility and typical on/off current ratio were 1.5 cm2/Vs and 107 for the n-channel operation, and 0.2 cm2/Vs and 106 for the p-channel operation, respectively. Free electron mobility in the conduction band and free hole mobility in the valence band have been estimated, using the temperature dependence of the field-effect mobilities. It was found that the hole mobility is as high as the electron mobility.
A series of films of amorphous hydrogenated germanium has been produced using the r.f. glow discharge technique by varying the H2/GeH4 ratio in the gas plasma from 0 to 50 while keeping all other deposition parameters constant. Electronic, optical, and structural characterization has been performed. No significant changes in optical and electronic properties were observed for this range of dilution, in contrast to repeated reports on the hydrogenated silicon-germanium alloy system. However, small systematic changes in structure are observed using TEM techniques. We conclude that the observed differences are unimportant in determining the optical and electronic properties of this material.
Undoped a-Ge:H films have been made both by sputtering and by glow discharge under various combinations of deposition parameters, and characterized structurally, electrically, and optically. A detailed comparison of subband gap spectra of sputtered and glow discharge samples has been carried out using photothermal deflection spectroscopy and the constant photocurrent method. The results show subband gap absorption in a-Ge:H to be an order of magnitude larger than in device-quality a-Si:H. For some of the films the absorption spectra deduced from transmission and PDS fit very well onto the absorption spectra inferred from CPM measurements, while for others it is clear that the match is very poor. We infer that the photoconductivity-derived spectrum does not necessarily reflect the dominant absorption process, and that this is related to the existence of a two-phase structure clearly observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.
Results from structural measurements on r.f. glow discharge produced a-Ge:H films have been found to be substrate dependent. The variations in the results were found to depend on both the substrate temperature, Ts, and the substrate yield strength. Differential scanning calorimetry results were particularly affected by these parameters. For films prepared at Ts = 150°C, the DSC spectra contain two exothermic peaks when the films are deposited on low yield strength substrates while only one exothermic peak is present for films deposited on high yield strength substrates. One exothermic DSC peak is seen in spectra for all films prepared at Ts = 300°C no matter what substrates were used. This DSC spectral dependence is attributed to differences in the microstructure of films deposited at the two substrate temperatures, as seen in TEM micrographs. X-ray diffraction measurements performed on films annealed to various temperatures show that all of the exothermic DSC peaks described above are associated with the crystallization process. Thus, for the films prepared at low Ts, crystallization is either a one or two step process depending on the yield strength of the substrate.
C60 Cl6 can be phenylated and arylated to give derivatives of the type C60Ar5Cl, which may be readily converted to C60Ar5. The compounds C60Ar5 and various other phenylated derivatives have been isolated from the product of reaction of fullerene with bromine/ferric chloride/benzene, and partially characterised.
The validity of determining the defect density in a-Si:H and its alloys by integrating the sub-bandgap optical absorption coefficient is examined. It is shown that a formula derived for estimating Si-H bond density has been incorrectly applied to defect related absorption. In addition, the complex defect absorption processes have been oversimplified, by assumption, to the case of a single type of transition. Further, in practice, the defect absorption spectrum can not be unambiguously obtained at energies near and above the low end of the optical absorption edge. It is concluded that die integration method for quantitative defect density determination should be viewed at best as an empirical practice with considerable arbitrariness.