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As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18–32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009–2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. We used a cross-sectional survey design, targeting blood donors 18–32 years old, living in France since 2009, who came to give blood in a blood collecting site. We included 4647 people in metropolitan France, 806 people in Réunion Island and 496 in the French Caribbean. A further 3942 individuals were interviewed in the south-east region of metropolitan France to estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. One of the main findings of this survey is that the proportion of people 18–32 years old susceptible to both measles and rubella infections remained high in France in 2013, 9.2% and 5.4%, respectively, in metropolitan France, even after the promotion campaigns about vaccination catch-up during and following the major measles epidemic in 2009–2011. Applying our results to French census data would suggest that around 1 million people aged 18–32 years old are currently susceptible to measles in France, despite this age group being one of the vaccination targets of the national measles elimination plan. Another important finding is that only an estimated 45% of the true number of cases in this age group was actually notified, despite notification being mandatory.
This paper evaluates the state of contact hypothesis research from a policy perspective. Building on Pettigrew and Tropp's (2006) influential meta-analysis, we assemble all intergroup contact studies that feature random assignment and delayed outcome measures, of which there are 27 in total, nearly two-thirds of which were published following the original review. We find the evidence from this updated dataset to be consistent with Pettigrew and Tropp's (2006) conclusion that contact “typically reduces prejudice.” At the same time, our meta-analysis suggests that contact's effects vary, with interventions directed at ethnic or racial prejudice generating substantially weaker effects. Moreover, our inventory of relevant studies reveals important gaps, most notably the absence of studies addressing adults' racial or ethnic prejudices, an important limitation for both theory and policy. We also call attention to the lack of research that systematically investigates the scope conditions suggested by Allport (1954) under which contact is most influential. We conclude that these gaps in contact research must be addressed empirically before this hypothesis can reliably guide policy.
The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a rabbit model. Rabbits were exposed daily to diluted diesel exhaust gas or filtered air from the 3rd until the 27th day of gestation, during which time germ cells migrate in genital ridges and divide, and fetal sex is determined. Offspring gonads were collected shortly before birth (28th day of gestation) or after puberty (7.5 months after birth). The structure of the gonads was analyzed by histological and immunohistological methods. Serum concentrations of testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone were determined using ELISA. The morphology and the endocrine function of the gonads collected just at the arrest of the exposure were similar in polluted and control animals in both sexes. No differences were observed as well in gonads collected after puberty. Sperm was collected at the head of the epididymis in adults. Sperm motility and DNA fragmentation were measured. Among all parameters analyzed, only the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was increased three-fold in exposed males. Mechanisms responsible for these modifications and their physiological consequences are to be further clarified.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The ASL (Local Sanitary Agency) dog pound in Milan is a sanitary structure where stray dogs (dogs which have run away from their owners, abandoned dogs and free ranging dogs) are housed after being found. Dogs cannot be adopted during the first 10 days. After this period, dogs stay in the same structure if space is available (and can be adopted), otherwise they are put in private kennels for unlimited time. Only dogs which are seriously sick or proved to be aggressive and dangerous can be put down through euthanasia (Law 281/91). When an adopted dog is brought back to the pound, the adoptive owner is asked to fill in a questionnaire. However, not everyone accepts to do so.
The aim of this study is to understand: a) the reasons why dogs adopted from the pound are then left again; b) what influences the owner’s decision to leave their pet; c) if the decision is linked to problems caused by the dog or to the owner’s choice.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
Polyaniline (PANI)/11% Multi-carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) nanocomposites sensors were synthesized through an in situ polymerization method. Frits compression method was adopted to make PANI/MWCNT. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) tests results showed that this technique produced a coating of PANI onto the MWCNT, which indicated that CNT were well dispersed in the polymer matrix. Several tests were run to evaluate the sensor's capabilities. The free end vibration test results showed that the double sided attachment of the sensor had higher damping ratio values than single sided attachment. Also, damping ratios were higher when the sensor was placed at the clamped end. Further, the strain sensing properties of PANI/MWCNT sensors were compared with the conventional foil strain gage. The dynamic sensing test results showed that over the range of 10–1000 Hz, the PANI/MWCNT composite sensor was consistently superior to the traditional foil strain gage for sensing purposes.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
White matter (WM) impairments have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and those at high familial risk of developing BD. However, the distribution of these impairments has not been well characterized. Few studies have examined WM integrity in young people early in the course of illness and in individuals at familial risk who have not yet passed the peak age of onset.
WM integrity was examined in 63 BD subjects, 150 high-risk (HR) individuals and 111 participants with no family history of mental illness (CON). All subjects were aged 12 to 30 years.
This young BD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) compared with the CON and HR groups. Moreover, the abnormality in the genu of the CC was also present in HR participants with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 16) compared with CON participants.
Our findings provide important validation of interhemispheric abnormalities in BD patients. The novel finding in HR subjects with recurrent MDD – a group at particular risk of future hypo/manic episodes – suggests that this may potentially represent a trait marker for BD, though this will need to be confirmed in longitudinal follow-up studies.
Introduction: Diagnosing the undifferentiated dyspneic emergency department (ED) patient remains a challenge for clinicians; in order to rule in or out acute heart failure (AHF) natriuretic peptide biomarker testing has evolved and is recommended by cardiology international guidelines to be utilized in these presentations. However there is equipoise in the emergency community for its use, largely due to perceived modest test specificity. We sought to analyze this apparent clinical dichotomy as part of a multicenter trial of undifferentiated dyspneic ED patients. Methods: Patients with dyspnea presenting between October 2010 and October 2013 to one of four ED sites -2 Canadian, 1 American, 1 New Zealand- were assessed by certified staff emergency physicians (EPs) and their chest Xray reviewed. Those patients with undifferentiated dyspnea with a potential for AHF (ie further investigated or treated for AHF but investigated and/or treated for another cause) were consented and enrolled. Two of the sites (American, New Zealand) had NT-proBNP assay ordered as a standard of care for these patients; the other 2 sites did not. At the end of Emergency care, the EP recorded the primary diagnosis of the dypnea-either “AHF” or “Not AHF.” Blinded adjudication was carried out by 2 cardiologists after reviewing sequential records: first, with index ED records but no NT-proBNP result; second, with the NT-proBNP result and lastly, with follow up 60 day records (deemed the gold standard diagnosis). EP accuracy between NT-proBNP and no NT-proBNP sites and NT-proBNP accuracy using standard cutpoints were calculated, as were the number of adjudicated cases influenced by exposure to NT-proBNP. Results: 197 patients were enrolled, 107 at NTproBNP sites and 90 at the other 2 sites. EP accuracy was 76% for either site. NT-proBNP used as a binary test with recommended age-stratified cutoffs had 80% accuracy, applied to 70% of patients (30% remained in “gray zone”).Cardiology adjudicators reversed 16% of initial diagnoses upon exposure to NT-proBNP result, ultimately diagnosing 41% of patients with AHF. Conclusion: This study supports the clinical equipoise amongst emergency physicians compared to cardiologists for the use of NT-proBNP in diagnosing acute heart failure in the undifferentiated dyspneic Emergency patient.
Data were pooled from three Australian sentinel general practice influenza surveillance networks to estimate Australia-wide influenza vaccine coverage and effectiveness against community presentations for laboratory-confirmed influenza for the 2012, 2013 and 2014 seasons. Patients presenting with influenza-like illness at participating GP practices were swabbed and tested for influenza. The vaccination odds of patients testing positive were compared with patients testing negative to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) by logistic regression, adjusting for age group, week of presentation and network. Pooling of data across Australia increased the sample size for estimation from a minimum of 684 to 3,683 in 2012, from 314 to 2,042 in 2013 and from 497 to 3,074 in 2014. Overall VE was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) 24–49] in 2012, 60% (95% CI 45–70) in 2013 and 44% (95% CI 31–55) in 2014. For A(H1N1)pdm09 VE was 54% (95% CI–28 to 83) in 2012, 59% (95% CI 33–74) in 2013 and 55% (95% CI 39–67) in 2014. For A(H3N2), VE was 30% (95% CI 14–44) in 2012, 67% (95% CI 39–82) in 2013 and 26% (95% CI 1–45) in 2014. For influenza B, VE was stable across years at 56% (95% CI 37–70) in 2012, 57% (95% CI 30–73) in 2013 and 54% (95% CI 21–73) in 2014. Overall VE against influenza was low in 2012 and 2014 when A(H3N2) was the dominant strain and the vaccine was poorly matched. In contrast, overall VE was higher in 2013 when A(H1N1)pdm09 dominated and the vaccine was a better match. Pooling data can increase the sample available and enable more precise subtype- and age group-specific estimates, but limitations remain.
Fronto-limbic structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but findings in individuals at increased genetic risk of developing BD have been inconsistent. We conducted a study in adolescents and young adults (12–30 years) comparing measures of fronto-limbic cortical and subcortical brain structure between individuals at increased familial risk of BD (at risk; AR), subjects with BD and controls (CON). We separately examined cortical volume, thickness and surface area as these have distinct neurodevelopmental origins and thus may reflect differential effects of genetic risk.
We compared fronto-limbic measures of grey and white matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area in 72 unaffected-risk individuals with at least one first-degree relative with bipolar disorder (AR), 38 BD subjects and 72 participants with no family history of mental illness (CON).
The AR group had significantly reduced cortical thickness in the left pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) compared with the CON group, and significantly increased left parahippocampal gyral volume compared with those with BD.
The finding of reduced cortical thickness of the left pars orbitalis in AR subjects is consistent with other evidence supporting the IFG as a key region associated with genetic liability for BD. The greater volume of the left parahippocampal gyrus in those at high risk is in line with some prior reports of regional increases in grey matter volume in at-risk subjects. Assessing multiple complementary morphometric measures may assist in the better understanding of abnormal developmental processes in BD.
Impairments in key neuropsychological domains (e.g. working memory, attention) and social cognitive deficits have been implicated as intermediate (endo) phenotypes for bipolar disorder (BD), and should therefore be evident in unaffected relatives.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive ability was examined in 99 young people (age range 16–30 years) with a biological parent or sibling diagnosed with the disorder [thus deemed to be at risk (AR) of developing BD], compared with 78 healthy control (HC) subjects, and 52 people with a confirmed diagnosis of BD.
Only verbal intelligence and affective response inhibition were significantly impaired in AR relative to HC participants; the BD participants showed significant deficits in attention tasks compared with HCs. Neither AR nor BD patients showed impairments in general intellectual ability, working memory, visuospatial or language ability, relative to HC participants. Analysis of BD-I and BD-II cases separately revealed deficits in attention and immediate memory in BD-I patients (only), relative to HCs. Only the BD (but not AR) participants showed impaired emotion recognition, relative to HCs.
Selective cognitive deficits in the capacity to inhibit negative affective information, and general verbal ability may be intermediate markers of risk for BD; however, the extent and severity of impairment in this sample was less pronounced than has been reported in previous studies of older family members and BD cases. These findings highlight distinctions in the cognitive profiles of AR and BD participants, and provide limited support for progressive cognitive decline in association with illness development in BD.
The charge - transfer reaction between protons and oxygen atoms is critical to the chemistry of the oxygen family; the corresponding rate was evaluated by Field and Steigman (1971) on the assumption of orbiting collisions and statistical probability distribution among the levels. We re-examine this reaction, including the fine-structure excitation process, basing our analysis on a careful description of the different potential curves arising from the O-H+ and 0+-H systems and on the evaluation of the coupling responsible for the transitions.
Recent work has demonstrated that counts of which other words co-occur with a word of interest can reflect interesting properties of that word. We have studied aspects of this kind of methodology by systematically examining the effects of different combinations of parameters used in the preparation of co-occurrence statistics. Several psychologically relevant evaluation measures are used. We have found that successful performance on the evaluation tasks depends on the correct selection of parameters such as window size and distance metric.