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Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
To measure and compare the skin doses received by treated left breast and contralateral breast (CB) during whole breast radiotherapy using five treatment techniques in an indigenously prepared wax breast phantom.
Materials and methods:
Computed tomography (CT) images of the breast phantom were used for treatment planning and comparison of skin dose calculated from treatment planning system (TPS) with measured dose. Planning target volume (PTV) and the CB were drawn arbitrarily on the CT images acquired for the breast phantom with 10 numbers of calibrated optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) fixed on the surface of both breasts. The TPS calculated surface doses of PTV breast and CB for five treatment planning techniques, viz., conventional wedge (CW), irregular surface compensator-based (ISC), field-in-field (FiF), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and rapid arc (RA) techniques were obtained for comparison. The plans were executed in Clinac iX Linear Accelerator with the OSLDs fixed at the same locations on the phantom as in simulation. The TPS calculated mean dose at the surface of the treated left breast and CB was noted for the 10 OSLDs from dose-volume histogram (DVH) and compared with the measured dose. Also, the mean chamber dose at the centre of the left breast was noted from the DVH for comparing with ion chamber measured dose.
With reference to the results, it is seen that the dose to the CB is lowest in ISC technique and FiF technique and greatest in IMRT technique. The CW technique also delivered a dose comparable to IMRT to the CB of the phantom. The dose to the surface of PTV breast was highest and comparable in CW plans and FiF plans (68% and 67%) and lowest in IMRT and RA plans (50% each).
Analysis of the results shows that the FiF and ISC techniques are preferred while planning breast radiotherapy due to the reduced dose to the CB.
A 64-year-old man with treated hypertension presented with acute left arm and leg weakness. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neck magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed. There was restricted diffusion in the right internal capsule posterior limb consistent with an acute lacunar infarct. The MRA demonstrated aplastic bilateral cervical vertebral arteries (V1 and V2 segments). bilaterally, a variant artery arose from the external carotid just above its origin, extended superiorly then medially, and forming the vertebral artery (V3 and V4 segments). bilaterally, the occipital artery arose from the variant artery at the juncture where it turned medially. The right variant artery terminated intracranially in the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The left variant artery continued intracranially to supply the basilar. The appearance was consistent with bilateral persistent proatlantal intersegmental arteries (PPIA) type II.
Anaesthesia for the posterior fossa provides a unique challenge for anaesthetists and neurosurgeons. Optimal patient positioning should facilitate surgical access without compromising patient safety. The important considerations are surgical access, securing and maintaining the airway, maintenance of adequate anaesthetic depth, haemodynamic stability and oxygenation. Care should be taken to limit the 'blackout state' during which the patient is not monitored or connected to the breathing circuits during patient transfer or positioning on the operating table. The hazards during positioning can be reduced by meticulous planning, careful positioning and vigilance to facilitate early detection of complications. The aim of maintenance of anaesthesia is to reduce the intracranial pressure (ICP) and to maintain haemodynamic stability. Anaesthesia can be maintained with either volatile agents or intravenous agents such as propofol. The choice of the anaesthetic agent is at the discretion of the individual anaesthetist.
This chapter discusses the role of structural imaging using CT and MRI, conventional angiography and CT angiography, and physiological imaging using CT perfusion, 131Xenon CT, MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the assessment, management and prediction of outcome neurological injury. Acute CT is useful in identifying those individuals in whom deterioration is as a result of a mass lesion and can demonstrate extradural, subdural or intracranial haemorrhage and midline shift, or subarachnoid haemorrhage and ventricular abnormality. Contrast-enhanced CT imaging is also used to produce CT angiography and perfusion imaging. MRI data are produced using powerful static magnetic fields and intermittent oscillating radiofrequency electromagnetic fields that elicit signals from the nuclei of certain atoms. Single-photon emission CT uses conventional gamma-emitting nuclear medicine isotopes with multiple detectors to generate tomographic images.
Background and objective: For use in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanning room infusion pumps must be MR safe and compatible. This study tested two commonly used infusion pumps (Alaris P6000 and Alaris Asena-GH) to determine if they met these criteria.
Methods: The pumps underwent testing within the scanning room of a 3 T MR scanner. Pump infusion rates were tested at up to 100 Gauss magnetic field strength, with and without radio frequency signals present. The effect of the pumps on image quality was assessed. The occlusion pressure alarm of the pumps was tested at up to 100 Gauss. The projectile risk was assessed by measuring the force exerted upon the pumps at the entrance to the scanner.
Results: The maximum mean flow rate errors at 100 Gauss were 2.18% for the Alaris P6000 and 1.42% for the Alaris Asena-GH, both within our accepted limits. Radio frequency signals had no effect on flow rate. The pumps produced no discernable artefacts on the acquired images. The maximum mean occlusion pressure error was 204 mmHg higher for the Alaris P6000 pump and 99 mmHg lower for the Alaris Asena-GH (P-values < 0.001) at 100 Gauss compared to testing outside the scanner. Both pumps were subject to significant attractive force at the entrance to the scanner.
Conclusions: Whilst the pumps cannot strictly be termed MR safe or compatible at 100 Gauss we have demonstrated that flow rates are unchanged and that, for the Alaris Asena-GH, the effect on the occlusion pressure alarm is unlikely to have patient safety implications.
Alternate layers of pure copper and gold were vapor deposited on a sodium chloride substrate, the average concentration of the films being Cu-16at% Au and the layering periodicity (modulation wavelength) being 3.31 nm. The composition modulation gives rise to satellite diffraction peaks around the (200) Bragg reflections. Synchrotron radiation at SSRL was able to detect up to third order satellite intensity the evolution of which was measured as a function of annealing time at 515 K. Although the first order satellite intensity decayed as expected exponentially with time, intensities of both second and third order satellites decreased very rapidly at first, then increased before decaying exponentially. These results are in conformity with theoretical models of satellite evolution during annealing in a onedimensional modulated system governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation.