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A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
The Lung Cam expanded stratigraphic succession in Vietnam is correlated herein to the Meishan D section in China, the GSSP for the Permian–Triassic boundary. The first appearance datum of the conodont Hindeodus parvus at Meishan defines the Permian–Triassic boundary, and using published graphic correlation, the Permian–Triassic boundary level has been projected into the Lung Cam section. Using time-series analysis of magnetic susceptibility (χ) data, it is determined that H. parvus arrived at Lung Cam ∼18 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. Data indicate that the Lung Cam section is expanded by ∼90 % relative to the GSSP section at Meishan. Given the expanded Lung Cam section, it is possible to resolve the timing of significant events during the Permian–Triassic transition with high precision. These events include major stepped extinctions, beginning at ∼135 kyr and ending at ∼110 kyr below the Permian–Triassic boundary, with a duration of ∼25 kyr, followed by deposition of Lung Cam ash Bed + 13, which is equivalent to Siberian Traps volcanism is graphically correlated to a precession Time-series model, placing onset of this major volcanic event at ~242 kyr before the PTB. The Meishan Beds 25 and 26, at ∼100 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. In addition, the elemental geochemical, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy susceptibility datasets from Lung Cam allow good correlation to other Permian–Triassic boundary succession. These datasets are helpful when the conodont biostratigraphy is poorly known in sections with problems such as lithofacies variability, or is undefined, owing possibly to lithofacies exclusions, anoxia or for other reasons. The Lung Pu Permian–Triassic boundary section, ∼45 km from Lung Cam, is used to test these problems.
Reproducing the planes of co-orbiting satellites observed in the MW and M31 so far has represented a challenge for cosmological simulations. We have developed a new method to search for kinematically-coherent groups of satellites and applied it to 2 different cosmological hydro-simulations of disc galaxies. In each simulation we have found such a group, that represents roughly half of the total satellite population and is distributed on a fairly thin plane that persists in time. These results are compatible with the MW and M31 observed planes.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Wet feeding beneficially affects feed intake and growth rates of poultry in hot climates (Forbes 2003). Fermenting liquid feeds for pigs has been shown to reduce microbial contamination of the feed (Beal et al., 2002) and this could be an added advantage in hot climates. The most desired property of fermented feed is a high lactic acid concentration produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the fermenting organisms. This high lactic acid concentration resulting in a low pH is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of fermented feeds. This activity is important for food and environmental safety. Grain sorghum is widely used as a food and animal feed cereal in many parts of Africa, Asia and the semi-arid tropics world-wide. It is recognised that differences in the colour of sorghum varieties are due mainly to their concentration of polyphenol compounds mainly tannins. These compounds have some antimicrobial properties and may affect the activity of lactic acid bacteria used to ferment liquid feeds. Little is known about the lactic acid fermentation of sorghum grain for fermented feeds in monogastric nutrition. The present study was designed to compare the fermentation of red and white sorghum with LAB for inclusion as a component of poultry diets.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic debilitating disease of man and animals caused by members of the genus Mycobacterium. TB is a major health problem with 8-9 million new cases a year in the world and 3 million deaths (WHO, 2002), and the majority of these are in developing nations. Infection due to due to M. bovis was once a major problem in developed countries but following eradication programmes, the incidence reduced to the extent that some areas are now free of the disease (Caffery, 1994). However, the infection continues in developing countries due to lack of rigorous control measures. In Nigeria there have been limited studies to determine the prevalence/relationship between bovine and human TB especially with the eating culture of ‘fura da nono’ i.e. unpasteurized milk. Abuja is the new capital of Nigeria with the population of 4 million continues to increase due to the influx of people from all states of the federation. The number of people diagnosed with TB is also on the increase. The semi forest vegetation of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) also encourages migration of Fulani nomads in search of green area for their animals. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bovine and human TB in the capital as well as to establish whether there is a link between animal and human TB.
Due to the practical advantages of fermenting the carbohydrate-rich cereal component of fermented feeds separately and combining it with the protein-rich components just before feeding (Beal et al., 2005; Moran et al., 2006), it is desirable to have a high lactic acid concentration in the fermented cereal component so as to minimise the dilution effect on the acid concentration and pH of the feed when mixed with the protein-rich component at feeding. With the same cereal substrate and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a key factor that might influence lactic acid production is the particle sizes produced at milling which could affect the amount of sugars available for microbial enzymatic fermentation. Further more, Anguita et al. (2006) indicated that technological processing of ingredients promotes higher starch hydrolysis in addition to increasing the amount of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and modifications in the physicochemical properties depending on the nature of the feed ingredients. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of particle size on fermentation of sorghum for poultry feed.
The control of enteropathogens at farm level is an important aspect of food safety. Contamination of poultry carcasses and eggs with human enteropathogens such as Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp and subsequent dissemination through in the food chain continues to be a public health concern. In pigs, surveillance studies have shown that feeding liquid diets, and particularly fermented liquid diets reduces the incidence of Salmonella positive herds. Liquid pig feed fermented with lactic acid bacteria for 24 h at 30°C contains ca 200 mMol L-1 of lactic acid and has a pH of 3.8-4.0. This renders the feed resistant to contamination by potential pathogens and, when challenged with high doses of Salmonella or E. coli these organisms are rapidly eliminated from the feed (Beal et al 2002). Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs lowers the gastric pH to 4 or less, reduces the coliform population and increases the lactic acid bacteria: coliform ratio (LAB: Coli) in the gut (van Winsen et al 2001, Scholten et al 2002). The objective of this study was to determine if similar beneficial effects on the gut microflora could be achieved in poultry fed fermented mash diets.
Liquid feed has to be pumped through pipes to deliver it to pigs. The dry matter content of the diet and the distribution of particle size affects a number of physico-chemical properties of the process. These determine the initial power needed to start a pump from the stationary position and to circulate the feed through the system. Particle size also affects the homogeneity of the diet and the extent to which separation occurs during pumping and after delivery to the trough. In ad lib. feeding systems there is an opportunity for feed particles to hydrate and increase in size. These changes could have a significant effect on viscosity and hence the DM concentration of the diet that could be pumped at a particular power loading. In dry diets, particle size distribution is normally assessed and described on the basis of simple dry sieving. However, this method cannot be used with liquid diets. In other applications, the sizes of particles in a suspension have been assessed using laser particle size analysis (Chmelik et al. 2001). This study was designed to 1) Determine the extent to which particle size distribution was changed by different disk mill settings; 2) Examine the change in particle size distribution resulting from steeping the cereal component in water for 24h; 3) Determine the effect of particle size on viscosity.
There is a well-established relationship between particle size of processed grains in diets and pig performance. It has been reported that as the particle size of feed is reduced there is an increase in the performance of pigs (Wondra et al., 1995). Increasing the surface area of feed ingredients by reducing particle size facilitates greater enzyme activity. Liquid feed provides an excellent medium for endogenous enzyme activation and the opportunity to improve the availability of nutrients (Brooks et al., 1996). The current study investigated the effect of particle size, processing and feed form on pig performance.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
The Fezzan Project completed its five-year fieldwork cycle in 2001. The geographical research team located numerous additional palaeolake sites within the Edeyen Ubari, using a combination of Remote Sensing technology and field visits. Additional samples were taken for analysis and dating from many lake edge locations, relating to both the large Pleistocene lake and to the numerous smaller Holocene lakes that have been identified by the team. The excavations at Old Germa were taken down through Garamantian occupation levels to the natural subsoil below the earliest cultural horizon. The earliest activity, represented by a few mudbrick walls and hearths built directly on the natural soil, is believed to date to c. 400-300 BC. Traces of several phases of Garamantian buildings were uncovered, along with numerous rubbish pits, which yielded a rich assemblage of finds, including, for the first time, examples of Garamantian figurines, small 3-D sculptures of humans and animals. Work on the various classes of finds (pottery, small finds, lithics and other stone artefacts, metallurgical evidence, etc.) complemented the excavation work. In addition, a small amount of further survey work was carried out on sites in the Wadi al-Ajal, along with a contour survey of Old Germa and standing building survey at a number of other sites.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359″ × 485″. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.