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Flash type electronic memories are the preferred format in code storage at complex programs running on fast processors and larger media files in portable electronics due to fast write/read operations, long rewrite life, high density and low cost of fabrication. Scaling limitations of top-down fabrication approaches can be overcome in next generation flash memories by replacing continuous floating gate with array of nanocrystals. Germanium (Ge) is a good candidate for nanocrystal based flash memories due its small band gap. In this work, we present effect of silicon dioxide (SiO2) host matrix density on Ge nanocrystals morphology. Low density Ge+SiO2 layers are deposited between high density SiO2 layers by using off-angle magnetron sputter deposition. After high temperature post-annealing, faceted and elongated Ge nanocrystals formation is observed in low density layers. Effects of Ge concentration and annealing temperature on nanocrystal morphology and mean size were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy. Positive correlation between stress development and nanocrystal size is observed at Raman spectroscopy measurements. We concluded that non-uniform stress distribution on nanocrystals during growth is responsible from faceted and elongated nanocrystal morphology.
Mental health services and research have been dominated for several decades by a rather simplistic, reductionistic focus on biological phenomena, with minimal consideration of the social context within which genes and brains inevitably operate. This ‘medical model’ ideology, enthusiastically supported by the pharmaceutical industry, has been particularly powerful in the field of psychosis, where it has led to unjustified and damaging pessimism about recovery. The failure to find robust evidence of a genetic predisposition for psychosis in general, or ‘schizophrenia’ in particular, can be understood in terms of recently developed knowledge about how epigenetic processes turn gene transcription on and off through mechanisms that are highly influenced by the individual's socio-environmental experiences. To understand the emerging evidence of the relationship between adverse childhood events and subsequent psychosis, it is necessary to integrate these epigenetic processes, especially those involving the stress regulating functions of the HPA axis, with research about the psychological mechanisms by which specific types of childhood trauma can lead to specific types of psychotic experiences. The implications, for research, mental health services and primary prevention, are profound.
Declaration of Interest: None of the authors have any conflicts of interest in relation to this paper.
The mean wall-normal gradients of the Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy have direct connections to the transport mechanisms of turbulent-boundary-layer flow. According to the Stokes–Helmholtz decomposition, these gradients can be expressed in terms of velocity–vorticity products. Physical experiments were conducted to explore the statistical properties of some of the relevant velocity–vorticity products. The high-Reynolds-number data (Rθ ≃ O(106), where θ is the momentum thickness) were acquired in the near neutrally stable atmospheric-surface-layer flow over a salt playa under both smooth- and rough-wall conditions. The low-Rθ data were from a database acquired in a large-scale laboratory facility at 1000 > Rθ > 5000. Corresponding to a companion study of the Reynolds stresses (Priyadarshana & Klewicki, Phys. Fluids, vol. 16, 2004, p. 4586), comparisons of low- and high-Rθ as well as smooth- and rough-wall boundary-layer results were made at the approximate wall-normal locations yp/2 and 2yp, where yp is the wall-normal location of the peak of the Reynolds shear stress, at each Reynolds number. In this paper, the properties of the vωz, wωy and uωz products are analysed through their statistics and cospectra over a three-decade variation in Reynolds number. Here u, v and w are the fluctuating streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise velocity components and ωy and ωz are the fluctuating wall-normal and spanwise vorticity components. It is observed that v–ωz statistics and spectral behaviours exhibit considerable sensitivity to Reynolds number as well as to wall roughness. More broadly, the correlations between the v and ω fields are seen to arise from a ‘scale selection’ near the peak in the associated vorticity spectra and, in some cases, near the peak in the associated velocity spectra as well.
The synthesis of nanoparticle pair structures via porous host electrochemical template synthesis reviewed. Electrochemical template synthesis offers two advantages over solution methods, namely: 1) control over particle pair structure and orientation; and 2) control over geometry, size and composition of each member of the particle pair. These features of electrochemical template synthesis allow for straightforward comparison of experimental and theoretical spectra. Orientation control allows for the evaluation of second order nonlinear optical properties of centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric nanoparticle pair systems. The dependence of Second Harmonic Generation intensity on particle pair shape size and orientation is discussed. The synthesis and linear spectra of metal-semiconductor nanoparticle pair structures are also discussed, with emphasis on interparticle physical and electromagnetic interactions.
We fabricated Bi nanowire array composites with wire diameters from 30 to 200 nm by high-pressure injection (HPI) of Bi melt into porous anodic alumina templates. The composites were dense, with Bi volume fraction in excess of 50%. The parallel Bi nanowires, whose length appeared to be limited only by the thickness of the host template (up to 55 μm), terminated at both sides of the composite in the Bi bulk. The individual Bi nanowire crystal structure was rhombohedral, with the same lattice parameters as that of bulk Bi; the wires in the array were predominantly oriented with the trigonal axis along the wire length. Low contact resistance was achieved by bonding the composite to copper electrodes.
The vast majority of pathogens invade via mucosal surfaces, including those of the intestine. Vaccination directly on these surfaces may induce local protective immunity and prevent infection and disease. Although vaccine delivery to the gut mucosa is fraught with obstacles, immunization can be enhanced using adjuvants with properties specific to intestinal immunity. In this review, we present three general mechanisms of vaccine adjuvant function as originally described by Freund, and we discuss these principles with respect to intestinal adjuvants in general and to the prototypical mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin. The key property of intestinal adjuvants is to induce an immunogenic context for the presentation of the vaccine antigen. The success of oral vaccine adjuvants is determined by their ability to induce a controlled inflammatory response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, characterized by the expression of various costimulatory molecules and cytokines. An understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms of adjuvanticity in the gut will allow the rational development of safe and effective oral vaccines.
The small effective mass and high mobility of electrons in Bi, make Bi nanowires a promising system for thermoelectric applications. Dense arrays of 20–200 nm diameter Bi nanowires were fabricated by high pressure injection of the melt. Transport properties and Seebeck coefficient were investigated for Bi nanowires with various wire diameters as a function of temperature (1 K < T < 300 K) and magnetic fields (B < 0.6 T). We discuss the problem of the contact resistance of Bi nanowire arrays.
Faeces containing a mixture of Hyostrongylus rubidus and Oesophagostomum spp. eggs were mixed with vermiculite and water and set up at combinations of different relative humidities (65.5%, 79.5%, 90.0% and 100%) and temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) in order to study the rate of egg hatching and larval development. The study established that the development from egg to infective larva showed similar patterns for the two parasites. Optimum development and survival was in the temperature range from 15°C to 20°C and ata humidities from 79.5 to 95.5%.
We discuss our rational approach to incorporate optically nonlinear molecules into polymeric and cross-linked materials through the use of isocyanate-hydroxy coupling chemistry. Thin film fabrication, optical loss, poling, second harmonic generation, and electro-optic properties are discussed.
Peptidic neurones may be considered as multisignal integrators and transducers. When formation or release of peptide outstrips genetically determined breakdown capacity, overflow of peptides to the body fluids and urine may be expected. In this paper, pathological urinary chromatographic patterns of peptides are shown for genetic, functional and mixed disorders. Part symptoms of the disorders may be induced with the biologically isolated and purified peptides as well as with chemically synthesized peptides.
Prefrontal leucotomy as an operative method of treatment for mental disease greatly stimulated research into the functions of the frontal lobes. The operation was a direct result of the observation of Fulton and Jacobsen (1935) that rage reactions seen in monkeys in the course of increasingly difficult experimental tasks do not occur after extirpation of the frontal lobes.
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