Skip to main content Accessibility help

Patterns of Peptides and Protein-Associated-Peptide Complexes in Psychiatric Disorders

  • O. E. Trygstad (a1), K. L. Reichelt (a1), I. Foss (a1), P. D. Edminson (a1), G. Saelid (a1), J. Bremer (a2), K. Hole (a3), H. Ørbeck (a1), J. H. Johansen (a4), J. B. B⊘ler (a4), K. Titlestad (a4) and P. K. Opstad (a5)...


Peptidic neurones may be considered as multisignal integrators and transducers. When formation or release of peptide outstrips genetically determined breakdown capacity, overflow of peptides to the body fluids and urine may be expected. In this paper, pathological urinary chromatographic patterns of peptides are shown for genetic, functional and mixed disorders. Part symptoms of the disorders may be induced with the biologically isolated and purified peptides as well as with chemically synthesized peptides.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence.


Hide All
Aakvaag, A., Bentdal, Ø., Quigstad, K., Walstad, P., R⊘nningen, H. & Fonnum, F. (1978) Testosterone and testosterone binding globulin (TeBG) in Young men during prolonged stress. International Journal of Andrology, 1, 2231.
Arabella, S. & Langen, S. Z. (1978) Morphine and β-endorphin inhibit release of noradrenaline from cerebral cortex but not of dopamine from rat striatum. Nature, 271, 559–60.
Asatoor, A. M., Milne, M. D. & Walshe, J. M. (1976) Urinary excretion of peptides and hydroxyproline in Wilson's disease. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine, 51, 369–78.
Barker, J. C. & Gainer, H. (1974) Peptide regulation of bursting pacemaker activity in a molluscan neurosecretory cell. Science, 184, 1371–3.
Barker, J. C., Neal, J. H., Smith, T. & MacDonald, R. L. (1978) Opiate peptide modulation of amino acid responses suggests novel form of neuronal communication. Science, 199, 1451–3.
Barry, J. (1977) Immunofluorescence study of LRF neurones in man. Cell and Tissue Research, 181, 114.
Beamish, P. & Kiloh, L. G. (1960) Psychosis due to amphetamine consumption. Journal of Mental Science, 106, 337–43.
Bergen, J. R., Gray, F. W., Punnell, R. B. (1965) Tarexein-like extracts. Effects of rat behaviour. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 80–2.
Bohus, B., Urban, I., Van Wimersha Greidanus, Tj.B. & De Wied, D. (1978) Opposite effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on avoidance behaviour and hippocampal theta rhythm in the rat. Neuropharmacology, 17, 239–47.
Buckalew, L. W. (1973) Relationship between a physiological and personality index of exciteability. Physiological Reviews, 1, 158–60.
Burzynski, S. R., Leo, T. L., Ho, D. G., Rao, P. N., Georgiades, G. & Kratzenstein, H. (1976) Biologically active peptides in human urine. Three. Inhibitors of growth of human leukemia, oesteosarcoma and hela cells. Physiological Chemistry and Physics, 8, 1322.
Carlsson, A. (1978) Does dopamine have a role in schizophrenia? Biological Psychiatry, 13, 321.
Carrel, B. J. y Mendels, J. (1976) Neuroendocrine regulation in effective disorders in Hormones, Behaviour and Psychopathology (Editor: Sachar, E. J.), New York: Raven Press, 193224.
Clement-Cornier, Y. C., Kebabaian, J. W., Petzold, G. L. & Greengard, P. (1974) Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in mammalian brain: A possible site of action of antipsychotic drugs. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (US), 71, 1113–17.
Cohn, M. L. & Cohn, M. (1977) Comparison of the regulation of rotational behaviour by hypothalamic oligopeptides. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2, 197202.
Creese, I., Bent, D. R. & Snyder, S. H. (1976) Dopamine receptor binding predicts clinical and pharmacological potencies of anti-schizophrenic drugs. Science, 192, 481483.
Dencker, S. J., Malm, U., Roos, B. E. & Wendinius, B. (1966) Acid monoamine metabolites of cerebrospinal fluid in mental depression and mania. Journal of Neurochemistry, 13, 1545–8.
De Wied, D. (1977) Peptides and behaviour. Life Sciences, 20, 195204.
Eysenck, H. J. (1976) In The Biological Basis of Personality, Springfield: C. C. Thomas.
Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G. & Munoz, R. (1972) Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 5763.
Foss, I. & Trygstad, O. E. (1975) Lipodystrophy produced in mice and rabbits by a fraction prepared from the urine from patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy. Acta Endocrinologica, 80, 398416.
Frohman, C. E., Czajkowski, N., Luby, E. D., Gottlieb, J. S. & Senf, R. (1960) Further evidence of a plasma factor in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2, 263–7.
Gasson, G. G. & Gilles, F. (1973) Limbic dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 36, 421–30.
Gersch, M. (1977) Informationsübermittlung mit Hilfe neurosekretorischer peptide als mediatoren. Naturwissenschaften, 64, 417–26.
Ghanshyam, N. P., Garver, D. L., Taminga, C., Erichsen, S., Syed, I. A. & Davis, J. M. (1977) Postsynaptic supersensitivity in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 518–22.
Gispen, W. H., Wiegant, V. M., Greven, J. M. & De Wied, D. (1975) The induction of excessive grooming in the rat by intraventricular application of peptide derived from ACTH: Structure activity studies. Life Sciences, 17, 645–52.
Goldman, D. (1969) Schizophrenia and its improvement: Necessary and sufficient conditions for the diagnosis of schizophrenia: in criteria for improvement in Schizoohrenia. (Ed. Sankar, D. V. S.). New York: P. J. O. Publications, 7083.
Goldsmith, P. C. (1977) Ultrastructural localization of some hypothalmic hormones. Federation Proceedings, 36, 1968–72.
Gregory, H. & Willshire, I. R. (1975) The isolation of the urogastrones—inhibitors of gastric secretion from human urine. Hoppe Seylers Zeitschrift für Physiologisches Chemie, 356, 1765–74.
Griffiths, E. C., Hooper, K. C., Jeffcoate, S. L. & Holland, D. T. (1975) The effect of gonadectomy and gonadal steroids on the activity of hypothalamic peptidases inactivating luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Brain Research, 88, 384–8.
Gross, S., Gallicka, N., Burzynski, S. R., Stolzmann, Z. (1976) Urinary peptides in muscular dystrophy. Studies on chick embryo fibroblast cultures. Physiological Chemistry and Physics, 8, 161–5.
Guillemin, R. (1978) Biochemical and physiological correlates of hypothalamic peptides. The new endocrinology of the neuron in The Hypothalamus (Reichlin, S., Beldessarini, R. J. & Martin, J. B. eds.). New York: Raven Press, 155–94.
Hagen, T. C., Lawrence, A. M. & Kirsteins, L. (1972) In vitro release of monkey growth hormone by acromegalic plasma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33, 448–51.
Harminson, C. R. & Frohman, C. E. (1972) Conformational variation in a human plasma lipoprotein. Biochemistry, 11, 4985–92.
Heath, R. & Krupp, I. M. (1968) Schizophrenia as a specific biologic disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 1019–24.
Heston, L. L. (1966) Psychiatric disorders in foster home reared children of schizophrenic mothers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 809–25.
H⊘kfelt, T., Elde, R., Fuxe, K., Johansson, O., Ljungdahl, A., Goldstein, M., Luft, R., Efendic, S., Nilsson, G., Terenius, L., Ganten, D., Jeffcoate, S. L., Rehfeld, J., Said, S., Perez de la Mora, M., Possani, L., Tapia, R., Teran, L. & Placios, R. (1978) Aminergic and peptidergic pathways in The Hypothalamus (Reichlin, S., Baldessarini, R. J. & Martin, J. B., eds.). New York: Raven Press, 69135.
Ifshin, M. S., Gainer, H. & Barker, J. C. (1975) Peptide factor extracted from mulluscan ganglia that modulates bursting pacemaker activity. Nature, 254, 7272.
Kallman, F. J. (1946) The genetic theory of schizophrenia. An analysis of 691 schizophrenic twin index families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 103, 309–22.
Kanner, L. (1958) The specificity of early infantile autism. Zeitschrift für Kinderpsychiatrie, 25, 108–13.
Kl⊘ve, H. & Hole, K. (1979) The hyperkinetic syndrome: Criteria for diagnosis, in Hyperactivity in Children, (Trites, R. L. ed.) Baltimore: University Park Press, in press.
Kornetsky, C. & Mirsky, A. F. (1966) On certain pharmacological physiological differences between schizophrenics and normal persons. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 8, 309–18
Kringlen, E. (1964) Schizophrenia in male monozygotic twins. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavian Supplement, 178, 176.
Kruse, H., Van Wimmersma-Greidanus, Tj. & De Wied, D. (1977) Barrel rotation induced by vasopressin and related peptides in rats. Pharmacology and Biochemistry of Behaviour, 5, 665–69.
Lake, C. R., Ziegler, M. G. & Murphy, D. L. (1977) Increased norepinephrine levels and decreased dopamine-hydroxylase activity in primary autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 553–6.
Langfeldt, G. (1939) The Schizophreniform States. London: Oxford University Press.
Lederis, R. (1974) Chemical and pharmacological properties of urotensin. 1. A long acting mammalian hypotensive peptide. Acta Physiologica Latinamericana, 24, 481–3.
Legros, J. L. (1978) Urinary excretion of neurophysins in patients with kidney disease. Journal of Endocrinology, 76, 411–5.
Lehnhoff, H. M. (1968) Behaviour, hormones and hydra. Science, 161, 434–42.
Levitan, I. B. & Treistman, M. (1977) Modulation of electrical activity and cyclic nucleotide metabolism in molluscan nervous system by a peptide-containing nervous system extract. Brain Research, 136, 307–17.
Malarkey, U. B. & Pankratz, K. M. (1975) Evidence for prolactin releasing activity (PRA) in human plasma not associated with TSH release. Clinical Research, 22, 600A.
Malmo, R. A. (1959) Activation: a neuropsychological dimension. Psychological Review, 66, 367–86.
Margolin, D. I. (1978) The hyperkinetic child syndrome and brain monoamines: pharmacology and therapeutic implications. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 120–30.
Matsuda, Y., Miyazaki, K., Moriya, H., Fujimoto, Y., Hojima, Y. & Moriwaki, C. (1976) Studies on urinary kallikreins. Purification and characterization of human urinary kallikreins. Journal of Biochemistry (Japan), 80, 671–80.
McDonald, R. L. (1974) Iatrogenic amphetamine psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 1200–1.
Moroni, R., Cheney, D. L. & Costa, E. (1977) Inhibition of acetylcholine turnover in rat hippocampus by intraseptal injections of beta-endorphin and morphine. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv für Pharmacologie, 299, 149–53.
Moss, R. I. & Foreman, M. M. (1976) Potentiation of Lordosis behaviour by intrahypothalmic infusion of synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Neuroendocrinology, 20, 176–81.
Motumatso, T., Lis, M., Seidah, N. & Chretien, M. (1977) Inhibition by beta-endorphin of Dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat striatum. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, 77, 442–7.
Murphy, D. L., Campbell, I. C. & Costa, J. L. (1978) The brain serotonergic system in the affective disorders. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology, 2, 131.
Nygaard, J. A. (1977) Hyperaktive barn med god prognose (Kramer-Poolnow's hyperkinetiske syndrome). Sandoz Inform., 115.
Ornitz, E. M. & Ritvo, E. R. (1976) The syndrome of autism: A critical review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 651–64.
Palmer, G. L. & Marion, A. A. (1974) Inhibition of the catalytic site of adenylate cyclase in the central nervous system by phenothiazine derivates. Neuropharmacology, 13, 651–64.
Rasmussen, E. W. & H⊘stmark, A. T. (1978) Age-related changes in the concentration of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in two groups of rats with inherited widely different of sponteneous physical activity. Circulation Research, 42, 598603.
Reichelt, K. L. & Edminson, P. D. (1976) Transmitter dependent peptide synthesis in the central nervous system. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, 15, 211–23.
Reichelt, K. L. & Edminson, P. D. (1977) Peptides containing probable transmitter candidates in the central nervous system in Peptides in Neurobiology. Ed. Gainer, H.). New York: Plenum Press, 171–81.
Reichelt, K. L., Foss, I., Trygstad, O. E., Edminson, P. D., Johansen, J. H. & B⊘ler, J. B. (1978a) Humoral control of appetite. II. Purification and characterization of an anrexogenic peptide from human urine. Neuroscience, 3, 1207–11.
Reichelt, K. L., Trygstad, O. E., Foss, I. & Johansen, J. H. (1978b): Peptides in congenital generalized lipodystrophy. The isolation of an aggression inducing peptide. The Psychopharmacology of Aggression. (Eds. Hunt, B. and Sandler, M.). New York: Raven Press, in press.
Reichun, S., Saperstein, R., Jackson, I. M. D., Boyd, A. E. & Patel, Y. (1976) Hypothalamic hormones. Annual Review of Physiology, 38, 389424.
Rimland, B. (1971) The differentiation of childhood psychosis: Analysis of checklists for 2218 psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia, 1, 161–74.
Rosenthal, D., Wender, P. & Kety, S. (1971) The adopted-away offspring of schizophrenics. American Journal Psychiatry, 128, 307–11.
Sandman, C. A., George, J., McCanne, T. R., Nolan, J. D., Kaswan, J. & Kastin, A. J. (1977) MSH/ACTH 4–10 influences behavioural and psysiological measures of attention. Journal Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 44, 884–91.
Sardesai, V. M., Ward, V., Provido, H. & Frohman, C. E. (1977) The effect of schizophrenic factor on liver tryptophan oxygenase. Communications in Psychopharmacology, 1, 439–46.
Schally, A. V., Arimura, A. & Kastin, A. J. (1973) Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. Science, 179, 341–50.
Schildkraut, J. D. (1965) The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorder: A review of supporting evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 509–22.
Schoenenberger, G. H. & Monnier, M. (1977) Characterization of a delta electroencephalogram (sleep) inducing peptide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 74, 1282–6.
Schuckit, M. A., Petrich, J. & Chiles, J. (1978) Hyperactivity: diagnostic confusion. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 7987.
Schulz, R. & Wüster, M. (1977) Renal excretion of endogeneous opoids. European Journal of Pharmacology, 43, 383–84.
Seeman, P. & Lee, T. (1975) Antipsychotic drugs: Direct correlation between clinical potency and presynaptic action on dopamine neurones. Science, 188, 1217–19.
Shaywitz, S. E., Cohen, D. J. & Shaywitz, B. A. (1978) The biochemical basis of minimal brain dysfunction. Journal of Pediatrics, 92, 179–87.
Sivaganian, R. P. S. & Hook, H. A. (1977) Mechanism of histamine release by formyl-methionine containing peptides. Journal of Immunology, 119, 2078–83.
Stenstedt, A. (1952) A study in manic depressive psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica and Neurologica Scandinavia Supplement 79.
Tardy, M. & Rolland, B. (1978) Action of homocarnosine, carnosine and anserine on uptake and metabolism of GABA in different subcellular fractions of rat brain. Experientia, 34, 823–4.
Taylor, K. M. (1974) Displacement of bound 14-C-fluphenazine by biogenic amines and antipsychotic drugs in homogenates of brain tissue. Nature, 252, 238–41.
Tienari, P. (1963) Psychiatric illnesses in identical twins. Acta Psychiatrica (Kbh.) Supplement 171.
Trygstad, O. E. & Foss, I. (1977) Congenital generalized lipodystrophy and experimental lipoatrophic diabetes in rabbits treated successfully with fenfluramine. Acta Endocrinologica, 85, 436–48.
Trygstad, O. E., Foss, I., Edminson, P. D., Johansen, J. H. & Reichelt, K. L. (1978) Humoral control of appetite. I. A urinary anorexogenic peptide. Chromatographic patterns of urinary peptides in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinologica, 89, 196208.
Trygstad, O. E., Seip, M. & Oseid, S. (1977) Lipodystrophic diabetes treated with fenfluramine. International Journal of Obesity, 1, 287–92.
Ungar, G. (1974) Molecular coding of memory. Life Sciences, 14, 595664.
U'Prichard, D. C., Greenberg, D. A., Sheenan, P. P. & Snyder, S. H. (1978) Tricyclic antidepressants: Therapeutic properties and affinity for a noreadrenergic receptor binding sites in the brain. Science, 199, 197–8.
Urban, I. V. & De Wed, D. (1978) Neuropeptides: Effects on paradoxical sleep and theta rythm in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 8, 51–8.
Vale, W., Rivier, C., Brown, M., Leppaluoto, J., Ling, N., Monahan, M. & Rivier, J. (1976) Pharmacology of hypothalmic regulatory peptides. Clinical Endocrinology, 5, 2613–45.
Versteeg, D. H. G., Tanaka, M., Dekloet, E. R., Van Rees, J. M. & De Wied, D. (1978) Prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG): regional effects on a MPT induced catecholamine disappearance in rat brain. Brain Research, 143, 561–6.
Wagemaker, B. & Cade, R. (1977) The use of hemodialysis in chronic schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 684–5.
Walaas, O., Lingjaerde, O., L⊘ken, F. & Hundevadt, E. (1954) Effects of sera from schizophrenic patients on glucose utilization of isolated rat diaphragm. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigation, 6, 245–9.
Wood, D. R., Reinherr, F. W., Wender, P. W. & Johnson, G. E. (1976) Diagnosis and treatment of minimal brain dysfunction in adults. Archives of Surgery, 111, 1453–60.
Yarbrough, G. C. (1976) TRH potentiates excitatory actions of acetylcholine of cerebral neurones. Nature, 263, 523–4.

Patterns of Peptides and Protein-Associated-Peptide Complexes in Psychiatric Disorders

  • O. E. Trygstad (a1), K. L. Reichelt (a1), I. Foss (a1), P. D. Edminson (a1), G. Saelid (a1), J. Bremer (a2), K. Hole (a3), H. Ørbeck (a1), J. H. Johansen (a4), J. B. B⊘ler (a4), K. Titlestad (a4) and P. K. Opstad (a5)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Patterns of Peptides and Protein-Associated-Peptide Complexes in Psychiatric Disorders

  • O. E. Trygstad (a1), K. L. Reichelt (a1), I. Foss (a1), P. D. Edminson (a1), G. Saelid (a1), J. Bremer (a2), K. Hole (a3), H. Ørbeck (a1), J. H. Johansen (a4), J. B. B⊘ler (a4), K. Titlestad (a4) and P. K. Opstad (a5)...
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *