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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are studying how samples might be brought back to Earth from Mars safely. Backward planetary protection is key in this complex endeavour, as it is required to prevent potential adverse effects from returning materials to Earth's biosphere. As the question of whether or not life exists on Mars today or whether it ever did in the past is still unanswered, the effort to return samples from Mars is expected to be categorized as a ‘Restricted Earth Return’ mission, for which NASA policy requires the containment of any unsterilized material returned to Earth. NASA is investigating several solutions to contain Mars samples and sterilize any uncontained Martian particles. This effort has significant implications for both NASA's scientific mission, and the Earth's environment; and so special care and vigilance are needed in planning and execution in order to assure acceptance of safety to Earth's biosphere. To generate a technically acceptable sterilization process across a wide array of scientific and other stakeholders, on 30–31 January 2019, 10–11 June 2019 and 19–20 February 2020, NASA informally convened a Sterilization Working Group (SWG) composed of experts from industry, academia and government to assess methods for sterilization and inactivation, to identify future work needed to verify these methods against biological challenges, and to determine their feasibility for implementation on robotic spacecraft in deep space. The goals of the SWG were:
(1) Understand what it means to sterilize and/or inactivate Martian materials and how that understanding can be applied to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission.
(2) Assess methods for sterilization and inactivation, and identify future work needed to verify these methods.
(3) Provide an effective plan for communicating with other agencies and the public.
This paper provides a summary of the discussions and conclusions of the SWG over these three workshops. It reflects a consensus position based on qualitative discussion of how agencies might approach the problem of sterilization of Mars material. The SWG reached a consensus that sterilization options can be considered on the basis of biology as we know it, and that sterilization modalities that are effective on terrestrial materials and organisms should be part of the MSR planetary protection strategy. Conclusions pointed to several industry standards for sterilization to include heat, chemical, UV radiation and low-heat plasma. Technical trade-offs for each sterilization modality were discussed while simultaneously considering the engineering challenges and limitations for spaceflight. Future work includes more in-depth discussions on technical trade-offs of sterilization modalities, identifying and testing Earth analogue challenge organisms and proteinaceous molecules against chosen modalities, and executing collaborative agreements between NASA and external working group partners to help close data gaps, and to establish strong, scientifically grounded sterilization and inactivation standards for MSR.
To establish the adherence of Assertive Outreach Service to the local protocol for the use of high dose antipsychotic (HDAT) medication. This audit cycle was started with an intention to minimise metabolic syndrome due to antipsychotic medication.
’Guidelines for the use of high dose antipsychotic (HDAT) medication’-February 2008. The following standards from the guidelines were measured from the sample:
1. HDAT monitoring sheet should be completed for all HDAT patients
2. ECG should be done for all HDAT patients
3. Blood tests (LFTs and U&Es) should be done for all HDAT patients
4. Physical examination should be done for all HDAT patients
5. Consent should be obtained from all HDAT patients and filled on the monitoring sheet.
6. Physical health risk factors should be filled for all HDAT patients
Data sample and collection
Out of 179 patients under the team, 17 patients were prescribed HDAT. All the data were collected from the case notes of all HDAT patients and entered into the HDAT monitoring sheets in January 2009 as a baseline assessment by Dr. Praveen Kumar and re-audited in June 2009 by Dr. Gaurav Mehta.
As evidenced by the results of audit in January 2009 and re-audit in June 2009, all the parameters were up to the standards in June 2009 except the physical examination not performed on all 17 HDAT patients as revealed inthe re-audit.
The prevalence of substance use is among adolescents is on rise. In India, inhalant is one of the common drugs of use and acts as a gateway for illicit substance use. The mainstay of treatment for inhalant use among this population is psychosocial interventions. In India, we largely rely on western models to guide intervention programs, however, there is a need to develop and test the psychosocial interventions which are culturally relevant and effective.
The present study aims to highlight the culture specific psychopathological factors associated with inhalant use among adolescents. The paper aims at studying the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention in reducing the frequency and quantity of inhalant use among adolescent clinic population.
Four adolescents reporting to the Adolescent Clinic at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were recruited for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, and post- intervention assessment were carried out.
Results and Discussion
There was a significant reduction in frequency and quantity of inhalant use in the cases. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. The psychpathological factors and challenges to intervention are discussed.
Headache is a common complaint among adolescents and is associated with several comorbid conditions particularly anxiety and depression. Transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy (TCBT) is an alternative approach to third wave CBT. It attempts to address multiple diagnoses at the same time while focusing on shared pathology and common processes (McEvoy et al., 2009).
To develop a group transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy intervention module for adolescents with comorbid headache and anxiety disorder and to evaluate the module in terms of feasibility, acceptance and efficacy.
A TCBT intervention module for headache and anxiety disorder for use with adolescents was developed. Fifteen adolescents diagnosed with comorbid headache and anxiety disorder were recruited from the outpatient psychiatric clinic at AIIMS, New Delhi. Baseline, mid-and post- intervention assessments was done on Youth Self Report, M.I.N.I KID, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, STAI – Y, CDI – 2, Headache Diary, Headache Impact Test (HIT) and Global Assessment Scale for Children (CGAS). TCBT was carried out over a period of 12 weeks with one group session per week for each of the three groups.
85% participants showed clinically significant improvement as rated on scores on STAI-Y, HIT and CGAS. Qualitative interpretation of headache diary showed significant decrease in the frequency, intensity and duration of headache for all participants.
TCBT module was found to be feasible, acceptable and efficacious leading to significant symptom reduction.
Possible benefits of TCBT as pertaining to the Indian context along with barriers are further discussed.
Despite the strong evidence for its effectiveness for depression in adolescence, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) remains difficult to access in India. Computerized CBT offers a substantive contribution to the delivery of effective care improving accessibility of treatment. The present study is an endeavor to assess the felt needs of adolescents vis-à -vis the difficulties and stressors experienced by them. Another objective of the study has been to develop and test a culturally relevant computer assisted CBT program called 'smartteen'. The presentation will discuss the results of the pilot test of the effectiveness of the intervention on a sample of 20 participants in reducing depressive symptoms.
In this pre and post research design, 20 depressed adolescents seeking treatment from the Department of Psychiatry at a premier institute in India, are being randomly assigned to intervention (n=10) and treatment as usual (n=10). Three assessments will be carried out at pre, mid (6 weeks of intervention) and post intervention (3 months of intervention) by a blind assessor. The primary outcome is recovery from depression and analysis will be done by intent to treat.
Results and Discussion
The study is ongoing and results will be presented at the time of presentation.
Association between leptin and ghrelin plasma levels and alcohol craving have been found in few studies but they have failed to differentiate this correlation with alcohol withdrawal state.
To research this correlation in a different population and to study this correlation with respect to hyper-excitable state of alcohol withdrawal.
To study levels of leptin and ghrelin in relation with alcohol withdrawal and craving.
Twenty-five indoor patients fulfilling the alcohol dependence criteria were assessed for alcohol withdrawal symptoms and craving. Leptin and ghrelin levels were measured on 1st day, @ the end of 1st week, @ the end of 3rd week of stopping alcohol. Withdrawal was assessed using CIWA-A at day 1 and day 7, craving was assessed using PENN's scale of craving at the end of week 1 and week 3. Control group consisted of 15 first-degree relatives not taking alcohol.
It was found that leptin [t (38) = 2.95, P = 0.005] and ghrelin [t (38) = 2.56, P = 0.015] were significantly higher in alcohol-dependent patients. Levels of hormones had no significant correlation with alcohol withdrawal scores but had positive correlation with craving scores after abstinence.
Leptin and ghrelin, known for balancing the energy homeostasis of body, also seem to play a role in pathways of drug dependence and craving. This relation is independent of stress hormone axis as leptin and ghrelin levels are not correlated with withdrawal scores, which is an indicator of stress hormone axis activation during alcohol withdrawal.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Preclinical and human studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation and the development of depressive behaviors. This is proposed to occur through downstream effects of inflammatory cytokines on neuroplasticity, neurogenesis and neurotransmitter function, although the neural correlates remain poorly understood in humans.
In Study 1, structural magnetic resonance imaging and serum inflammatory cytokine data were analyzed from 53 psychiatrically healthy female participants. Correlational analyses were conducted between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and volume in a priori regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In Study 2, medical data [including serum inflammatory acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein)] were analyzed for 12 589 participants. Participants were classified as having (n = 2541) v. not having (n = 10 048) probable lifetime MDD using phenotypes derived using machine-learning approaches. Non-parametric analyses compared inflammation between groups, whereas regression analyses probed whether inflammation predicted probable MDD classification while accounting for other variables.
In Study 1, significant negative correlations emerged between IL-6 and hippocampal, caudate, putamen and amygdalar volume. In Study 2, the MDD group showed a higher probability of elevated inflammation than the non-MDD group. Moreover, elevated inflammation was a significant predictor of probable MDD classification.
Findings indicate that inflammation is cross-sectionally related to reduced volume in brain regions implicated in MDD phenotypes among a sample of psychiatrically healthy women, and is associated with the presence of probable MDD in a large clinical dataset. Future investigations may identify specific inflammatory markers predicting first MDD onset.
To measure the association between receipt of specific infection prevention interventions and procedure-related cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections.
Retrospective cohort with manually reviewed infection status.
Setting: National, multicenter Veterans Health Administration (VA) cohort.
Sampling of procedures entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking-Electrophysiology (CART-EP) database from fiscal years 2008 through 2015.
A sample of procedures entered into the CART-EP database underwent manual review for occurrence of CIED infection and other clinical/procedural variables. The primary outcome was 6-month incidence of CIED infection. Measures of association were calculated using multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic regression.
We identified 101 procedure-related CIED infections among 2,098 procedures (4.8% of reviewed sample). Factors associated with increased odds of infections included (1) wound complications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16–24.20), (2) revisions including generator changes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.59–3.63), (3) an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) >1.5 (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12–2.18), and (4) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization (aOR, 9.56; 95% CI, 1.55–27.77). Clinically effective prevention interventions included preprocedural skin cleaning with chlorhexidine versus other topical agents (aOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22–0.76) and receipt of β-lactam antimicrobial prophylaxis versus vancomycin (aOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37–0.96). The use of mesh pockets and continuation of antimicrobial prophylaxis after skin closure were not associated with reduced infection risk.
These findings regarding the real-world clinical effectiveness of different prevention strategies can be applied to the development of evidence-based protocols and infection prevention guidelines specific to the electrophysiology laboratory.
This article showcases details on enumerative information of dissimilar aluminum (Al) to steel welds manufactured using different friction-based welding processes with an emphasis on the description of the manufacturing process, influence of parameters, microstructural variations, formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), and variations in mechanical properties. Friction-based welding processes such as friction welding, friction stir welding, hybrid friction stir welding, friction stir spot welding, friction stir spot fusion welding, friction stir scribe welding, friction stir brazing, friction melt bonding, friction stir dovetailing, friction bit joining, friction stir extrusion, and friction stir assisted diffusion welding are analyzed for the formation of dissimilar Al–steel joints. It can be summarized that friction-based joining processes have great potential to obtain sound Al–steel joints. The amount of frictional heat applied decides the type and volume fraction of IMCs that subsequently affects mechanical joint properties. Process variations and novel process parameters can enhance joint properties.
The rate of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is increasing coincident with an increase in the number of device procedures. Preprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces CIED infections; however, there is no evidence that prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials additionally reduce risk. Thus, we sought to quantify the harms associated with this approach.
To measure the association between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), acute kidney injury (AKI) and receipt of prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials.
CIED procedures entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking Electrophysiology (CART-EP) database during fiscal years 2008–2016 were included. The primary outcome was 90-day incidence of CDI and the secondary outcome was the 7-day incidence of AKI. The primary exposure measure was duration of postprocedural antimicrobial therapy. Associations were measured using Cox-proportional hazards and binomial regression.
Prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial therapy was identified following 3,331 of 6,497 CIED procedures (51.3%), and the median duration of prophylaxis was 5 days. Prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial use was associated with increased risk of CDI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–5.46). Of the 27 patients who developed CDI, 11 subsequently died. Postprocedural antimicrobial use with ≥2 antimicrobials was associated with an increased risk of AKI (OR, 4.16; 95% CI, 2.50–6.90). The impact was particularly significant when one of the dual agents prescribed was vancomycin (adjusted OR, 8.41; 95% CI, 5.53–12.79).
Prolonged antimicrobial prophylaxis following CIED procedures increases preventable harm; this practice should be discouraged in procedural settings such as the cardiac electrophysiology laboratory.
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an intervention that strives to end the practice of open defaecation. This study measured the effectiveness of CLTS in Nyando District by examining the association between community open defaecation-free (ODF) status and childhood diarrhoeal illness. A cross-sectional study design was used among households with children ⩽5 years old to ascertain information on acute diarrhoea in the past year (outcome), sanitation and health behaviours. Water testing was conducted to determine Escherichia coli and turbidity levels for 55 water sources. Data were obtained from 210 parents or caregivers from an ODF community and 216 parents or caregivers in a non-ODF community. The non-ODF participants reported a non-significant 16% increased risk of diarrhoea compared with the participants from the ODF community. Children's HIV positivity (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.29; 95% CI 2.07–2.53), unsafe child stool disposal (aPR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.74–2.12) and low household income (aPR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.46–2.56) were associated with diarrhoea, in the non-ODF community. The ODF location had a higher percentage of E. coli in the drinking water compared with the non-ODF location (76.7% vs. 60%). Diarrhoeal disease rates in children ⩽5 years old did not differ by whether a latrine intervention was implemented. Water sampling findings suggest water safety may have decreased the effectiveness of the CLTS’ improvement of childhood diarrhoea. Improved water treatment practices, safe stool disposal and education may improve the CLTS intervention in ODF communities and therefore reduced the risk of childhood diarrhoea.
To assess antimicrobial prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and associated barriers to optimal prescribing.
A convenience sample of 2,900 US antimicrobial prescribers at 5 acute-care hospitals within a hospital network.
The following characteristics were assessed with an anonymous, online survey in February 2015: attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial resistance, AS programs, and institutional AS resources; antimicrobial prescribing and AS knowledge; and practices and confidence related to antimicrobial prescribing.
In total, 402 respondents completed the survey. Knowledge gaps were identified through case-based questions. Some respondents sometimes selected overly broad therapy for the susceptibilities given (29%) and some “usually” or “always” preferred using the most broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials possible (32%). Nearly all (99%) reported reviewing antimicrobial appropriateness at 48–72 hours, but only 55% reported “always” doing so. Furthermore, 45% of respondents felt that they had not received adequate training regarding antimicrobial prescribing. Some respondents lacked confidence selecting empiric therapy using antibiograms (30%), interpreting susceptibility results (24%), de-escalating therapy (18%), and determining duration of therapy (31%). Postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) was the most commonly cited AS intervention (79%) with potential to improve patient care.
Barriers to appropriate antimicrobial selection and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy were identified among front-line prescribers in acute-care hospitals. Prescribers desired more AS-related education and identified PPRF as the most helpful AS intervention to improve patient care. Educational interventions should be preceded by and tailored to local assessment of educational needs.
Ethnic minority individuals have an increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder, particularly if they live in areas of ethnic segregation, or low own group ethnic density. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this ethnic minority associated risk are unknown. We used functional MRI to investigate neural responses to faces of different ethnicity, in individuals of black ethnicity, and a control group of white British ethnicity individuals.
In total 20 individuals of black ethnicity, and 22 individuals of white British ethnicity underwent a 3T MRI scan while viewing faces of black and white ethnicity. Own group ethnic density was calculated from the 2011 census. Neighbourhood segregation was quantified using the Index of Dissimilarity method.
At the within-group level, both groups showed greater right amygdala activation to outgroup faces. Between groups, the black ethnicity group showed greater right amygdala activation to white faces, compared to the white ethnicity group. Within the black ethnicity group, individuals living in areas of lower own group ethnic density showed greater right amygdala reactivity to white faces (r = −0.61, p = 0.01).
This is the first time an increased amygdala response to white faces has been demonstrated in individuals of black ethnicity. In the black ethnicity group, correlations were observed between amygdala response and neighbourhood variables associated with increased psychosis risk. These results may have relevance for our understanding of the increased rates of paranoia and psychotic disorders in ethnic minority individuals.
Introduction: Patients from all population groups visit the emergency department (ED), with increasing visits by elderly patients. Patient falls in the ED are a significant safety concern, and they can lead to serious injuries and worse outcomes. Toronto Western Hospital’s ED Quality Improvement (QI) team identified as a problem our assessment and management of patients at risk for falls. The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive and standardized approach to patients at risk of falls in the ED, including implementing timely interventions for fall prevention. Methods: A literature review of existing tools was completed to develop our own reliable and valid fall risk screening tool for ED patients. QI methods were used to devise a comprehensive strategy starting with detection at triage and implementation of action-driven steps at the bedside, through multiple PDSA cycles, randomized audits, surveys, and education. Repeated measurements were undergone throughout the project, as were staff satisfaction surveys. Results: The chart audits showed a five-fold increase in the completion rate of the fall risk screening tool in the ED by the end of the QI initiative (from 10% to 50%). Constructive feedback by an engaged team of nurses was used to iteratively improve the tool, and there was mostly positive feedback on it after various PDSA cycles were completed. The various component of this novel and useful ED-based falls screening tool and bundle will be presented in tables and figures for other leaders to replicate in their EDs. Conclusion: We developed a completely new ED-specific fall risk screening tool through literature review, front-line provider feedback, and iterative PDSA cycles. It was used for the identification, prevention, and management of ED patients with fall risk. We also contributed to a positive change in the culture of a busy ED environment towards the promotion of patient safety. Education and feedback continue to be provided to the ED nurses for reflective practice, and we hope to continue to improve our tool and to share it with other EDs.
To investigate the feasibility of a national audit of epistaxis management led and delivered by a multi-region trainee collaborative using a web-based interface to capture patient data.
Six trainee collaboratives across England nominated one site each and worked together to carry out this pilot. An encrypted data capture tool was adapted and installed within the infrastructure of a university secure server. Site-lead feedback was assessed through questionnaires.
Sixty-three patients with epistaxis were admitted over a two-week period. Site leads reported an average of 5 minutes to complete questionnaires and described the tool as easy to use. Data quality was high, with little missing data. Site-lead feedback showed high satisfaction ratings for the project (mean, 4.83 out of 5).
This pilot showed that trainee collaboratives can work together to deliver an audit using an encrypted data capture tool cost-effectively, whilst maintaining the highest levels of data quality.
To examine self-reported practices and policies to reduce infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in healthcare settings outside the United States.
International members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network.
Electronic survey of infection control and prevention practices, capabilities, and barriers outside the United States and Canada. Participants were stratified according to their country’s economic development status as defined by the World Bank as low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income.
A total of 76 respondents (33%) of 229 SHEA members outside the United States and Canada completed the survey questionnaire, representing 30 countries. Forty (53%) were high-, 33 (43%) were middle-, and 1 (1%) was a low-income country. Country data were missing for 2 respondents (3%). Of the 76 respondents, 64 (84%) reported having a formal or informal antibiotic stewardship program at their institution. High-income countries were more likely than middle-income countries to have existing MDRO policies (39/64 [61%] vs 25/64 [39%], P=.003) and to place patients with MDRO in contact precautions (40/72 [56%] vs 31/72 [44%], P=.05). Major barriers to preventing MDRO transmission included constrained resources (infrastructure, supplies, and trained staff) and challenges in changing provider behavior.
In this survey, a substantial proportion of institutions reported encountering barriers to implementing key MDRO prevention strategies. Interventions to address capacity building internationally are urgently needed. Data on the infection prevention practices of low income countries are needed.
The north-western Himalaya is one of the rich repositories of wheat genetic resources because of the preponderance of locally developed traditional crop varieties owing to high agro-climatic heterogeneity and local socio-cultural diversity. In the present study, 100 wheat landraces of this diversity rich region were evaluated for variability in physical parameters of seed to understand the basis of resistance against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. The evaluation was based on the parameter of growth index (GI) of S. oryzae in different landraces. GI was correlated with different quantitative physical seed parameters, viz. hardness, length, width, length × width, test weight and qualitative parameter seed colour were studied to work out if these were related to resistance/susceptibility. Based on the parameter of GI, the six landraces viz. IC266831, IC266872, IC393109, IC392578, IC444217 and IC589276 were identified as resistant. Correlation coefficients between GI of S. oryzae and physical parameters of wheat landraces indicated that GI had significant positive relation with length × width (r = +0.573) and test weight (r = +0.549) indicated that small seeds confer resistance to S. oryzae. Also significant negative relation (r = −0.457) with GI of S. oryzae and seed hardness, indicated that hard seeds were relatively more resistant to S. oryzae.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
To report three cases illustrating that it is not unusual for a primary eyelid tumour to metastasise to the parotid gland and vice versa.
Two patients with malignant parotid tumours underwent radical parotidectomy and presented subsequently with eyelid lesions. Biopsy showed that both eyelid lesions were histologically similar to the primary parotid tumour. A third patient was noted to have ipsilateral upper eyelid and parotid gland tumours. Histology and immunocytochemistry were used to differentiate the primary tumour and the metastasis.
These cases illustrate that tumours involving eyelids and parotid glands can present simultaneously or sequentially, and either of these structures could be the focus of primary or metastatic tumour. The important message for oculoplastic and parotid surgeons is to routinely assess both the periocular and parotid area when patients present with a mass in either structure.