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In evaluating the quality of table eggs and the developmental stages of embryonic eggs, spectroscopic techniques provide greater efficiency than traditional, time-consuming and laborious approaches. This review summarises recent developments in the spectroscopic analysis of table eggs, including the determination of the chemical composition (ratios of performance to standard deviation of 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, and protein in egg yolk and moisture and protein in egg albumen, respectively, have been reported). A Haugh unit detection accuracy RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) for quality of 6.29 was obtained by hyperspectral imaging) for table eggs and fertility detection (for white-shell eggs, fertility detection has been realised at a promising rate of 93.5%) and gender determination in hatching eggs. In conclusion, hyperspectral imaging generally outperforms visible or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy when evaluating both consumption eggs and hatching eggs, and near-infrared reflectance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibit a strong potential for gender determination prior to hatching. Scientists have attained a correct sexing rate above 90% at 3.5 d of egg incubation without removing the inner shell membrane. In the detection of blood-spot eggs or fertile eggs, eggshell colour proved to be a negative factor.
The two-phase flow pattern of a flow mixing nozzle plays an important role in jet breakup and atomization. However, the flow pattern of this nozzle and its transformation characteristics are still unclear. A diesel-air injection simulation model of a flow mixing nozzle is established. Then the two-phase flow pattern and transformation characteristics of the flow mixing nozzle is studied using a numerical simulation method. The effect of the air-diesel velocity ratio, ratio of the distance between the tube orifice and nozzle hole and the tube diameter (H/D), and the diesel inlet velocity was studied in terms of the jet breakup diameter (jet diameter at the breakup position) and jet breakup length (length of the diesel jet from the breakup position to the nozzle outlet). The results show that the jet breakup diameter decreases with the decrease in H/D or the increase in the air-diesel velocity ratio and diesel inlet velocity. The jet breakup length increases first and then decreases with the increase in H/D and air-diesel velocity ratio; the trend of the diesel inlet velocity is complicated. In addition, a change in the working conditions also causes some morphological changes that cannot be quantitatively analyzed in the diesel-air flow pattern. The transition characteristics of the flow pattern are analyzed, and it is found that the main reason for the change in the flow pattern is the change in the inertial force of the air, surface tension force, and viscous force of diesel (non-dimensional Reynolds number and Weber number describe the transition characteristics in this paper). The surface tension force of diesel decreases and the viscous force of diesel and inertial force of air increase when the air-diesel velocity ratio increases or H/D decreases. However, the effects of the diesel surface tension force and viscous force effect are much smaller than that of the air inertial force, which changes the diesel-air flow pattern from a drop pattern to a vibration jet pattern, broken jet pattern, and then a chaotic jet pattern.
Japanese foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus Steud.) is an invasive grass weed that severely threatens the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) crops in eastern Asia. Mesosulfuron-methyl is a highly efficient acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide widely used for control of this species in China. However, in recent years, some A. japonicus populations have evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl by different amino acid substitutions (AASs) within the ALS gene. In the current study, 11 populations of A. japonicus were collected from Anhui Province, China, where the wheat fields were severely infested with this weed. Based on single-dose screening, eight of these populations evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl, and gene sequencing revealed three AASs located in codon 197 or 574 of the ALS gene in the different resistant populations. Subsequently, three typical populations, AH-1, AH-4, and AH-10 with Trp-574-Leu, Pro-197-Thr, and Pro-197-Ser mutations, respectively, in ALS genes were selected to characterize their cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors. Compared with the susceptible population AH-S, AH-1 showed broad-spectrum cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), and sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinones (SCTs); whereas AH-4 and AH-10 were resistant to SUs, TPs, and SCTs but sensitive to IMIs. Moreover, all three resistant populations were sensitive to both photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor QYM201 (1-(2-chloro-3-(3-cyclopropyl-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperidin-2-one). Based on the current state of knowledge, this study is the first report of A. japonicus evolving cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides due to a Pro-197-Ser mutation in the ALS gene.
The micro-nano rough structure promotes the formation of superhydrophobic surfaces, while the formation of superoleophobic surfaces requires the support of re-entrant structures. Electrochemical etching and boiling water treatment methods were used to process the superoleophobic surface in the Al–Mg alloy substrate. The differences between the potential of the aluminum and the magnesium promoted the formation of the surface microstructure under the current stimulation, and the surface was formed into dense nanoscale needle-like coating after boiling water treatment. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement were performed to characterize the morphological features, chemical composition, and surface wettability, respectively. The so-prepared superoleophobic surfaces showed high contact angles and small sliding angles for water, ethylene glycol, and hexadecane. In addition, surface topography, reaction mechanism, and experimental parameters were also studied.
Shortawn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.) is an invasive and highly troublesome weed species originating from North America that has become widespread across China. Since its proliferation seriously threatens crop production worldwide, understanding its genetic diversity is critical for developing a forecasting system for integrated pest management plans. To accelerate the application of molecular markers in A. aequalis, this study aimed to develop a set of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using previous high-throughput sequencing data. In this study, a total of 1411 SSR loci were identified from 95,479 unigenes. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type with a frequency of 66.27%, followed by di- (24.95%) and tetra-nucleotide (8.78%). Among the loci, 584 primer pairs were successfully designed for marker development. Subsequently, a subset of 36 primer pairs was randomly selected and synthesized, of which 12 (33.33%) pairs successfully revealed abundant allelic polymorphism. Additionally, to investigate their utility, the genotypes of 160 individuals from 20 natural populations representing diverse wild genotypes of A. aequalis were analysed by using these 12 polymorphic markers. These novel SSR markers developed here are reliable and useful for genetic analysis on this invasive plant and will greatly enrich its genetic resource.
The crack initiation and early growth behaviors of a TC4 titanium alloy under high cycle fatigue and very high cycle fatigue were experimentally investigated. The results show that it exhibits the duplex S–N curve characteristics associated with surface and interior failures at a stress ratio of 0.1, while it represents the similar S–N curve characteristics only related to surface failure at a stress ratio of −1. The interior failure is accompanied with the occurrence of facets, granular bright facets (GBFs), and fisheye. Slip-like patterns are observable on the facets easily formed under positive stress ratio. The interior failure process is characterized as (i) occurrence of slip lines on partial α grains under cyclic loading, (ii) initiation and growth of microcracks within some α grains, (iii) coalescence of microcracks and formation of GBF, (iv) stable long crack growth within fisheye, (v) unstable crack growth outside fisheye, and (vi) final momentary fracture.
Ni/Sn–xZn/Ni (x = 1, 5, 9 wt%) joints were used to investigate the effect of Zn content on interfacial reactions during reflow under a temperature gradient. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) occurred between the cold and hot end interfaces. Faster IMC growth at the cold end and a more prompt IMC transformation at the hot end in a lower Zn content solder joint were identified due to the more thermomigration-induced Zn and Ni atomic fluxes toward the cold end. The main diffusion species into IMC layers changed from Zn atoms at the early stage to Sn and Ni atoms at the later stage. As a result, the IMC evolution followed (Ni,Zn)3Sn4 → Ni3Sn4 in the Ni/Sn–1Zn/Ni joint, Ni5Zn21 → τ phase → Ni3Sn4 in the Ni/Sn–5Zn/Ni joint, and Ni5Zn21 → τ phase in the Ni/Sn–9Zn/Ni joint along with the reflow time. A higher Zn content could effectively inhibit the dissolution of the hot-end Ni substrate and restrain the growth rate of the cold-end interfacial IMCs.
Shortawn foxtail is an invasive grass weed infesting winter wheat and canola production in China. A better understanding of the germination ecology of shortawn foxtail would help to develop better control strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt concentration, and planting depth, on seed germination and seedling emergence of shortawn foxtail. The results showed that the seed germination rate was greater than 90% over a wide range of constant (5 to 25C) and alternating (15/5 to 35/25C) temperatures. Maximum germination occurred at 20C or 25/15C, and no germination occurred at 35C. Light did not appear to have any effect on seed germination. Shortawn foxtail germination was 27% to 99% over a pH range of 4 to 10, and higher germination was obtained at alkaline pH values ranging from 7 to 10. Seed germination was sensitive to osmotic potential and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.6 MPa, but it was tolerant to salinity: germination even occurred at 200 mM NaCl (5%). Seedling emergence was highest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but declined with the increasing burial depth. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried 6-cm deep. Deep tillage could be an effective measure to limit seed germination from increased burial depth. The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of the requirements for shortawn foxtail germination and emergence and will provide information that could contribute to its control.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
By reflowing Cu/Sn/Ni ultrafine interconnects under a temperature gradient, a new transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was proposed for three-dimensional packaging applications. The evolution of the dominant (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds depends strongly on the temperature gradient. The essential cause of such dependence is attributed to the different amounts of Cu and Ni atomic fluxes being introduced into the liquid solder. Under the coupling effect of thermomigration and Cu–Ni cross-interaction, the total atomic flux of Cu and Ni is promoted. As a result, the growth of dense (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is significantly accelerated and the formation of Cu3Sn is eliminated. The new TLP bonding process consumes only a limited amount of the Ni substrate, but much more from the Cu substrate. The mechanism for the new TLP bonding process is discussed and experimentally verified in this study.
A novel mesh deformation technique is developed based on the Delaunay graph mapping method and the inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation. The algorithm maintains the advantages of the efficiency of Delaunay graph mapping mesh deformation while it also possesses the ability of better controlling the near surface mesh quality. The Delaunay graph is used to divide the mesh domain into a number of sub-domains. On each sub-domain, the inverse distance weighting interpolation is applied, resulting in a similar efficiency as compared to the fast Delaunay graph mapping method. The paper will show how the near-wall mesh quality is controlled and improved by the new method
In this paper, we extend using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method together with the front tracking method to simulate the compressible two-medium flow on unstructured meshes. A Riemann problem is constructed in the normal direction in the material interfacial region, with the goal of obtaining a compact, robust and efficient procedure to track the explicit sharp interface precisely. Extensive numerical tests including the gas-gas and gas-liquid flows are provided to show the proposed methodologies possess the capability of enhancing the resolutions nearby the discontinuities inside of the single medium flow and the interfacial vicinities of the two-medium flow in many occasions.
Participation in organizational decision-making has received considerable attention from scholars. Beyond the perspectives proposed in past studies, we offer a new account, based upon a communication perspective, to explain why and when participation in decision-making can influence job satisfaction. Drawing from social capital theory, we examine whether communication openness mediates the relationship between participation in decision-making and job satisfaction. We also investigate how information adequacy moderates this mediated process. Results from a sample of 184 employees in China showed that the four-factor model was the best fitting solution (CFI = .91, GFI = .90, RMSEA = .09). The analyses indicated that employees’ participation in decision-making positively affected their job satisfaction (β = .32, p < .001), and the effect was mediated by communication openness (direct effect became non-significant when communication openness was included: β = .06, n.s.). Results also found that decision-making information adequacy positively moderated the relationship between participation in decision-making and communication openness (β = .13, p < .05). Thus, open communication and the free flow of information within organizations should be encouraged.
Paleoenvironmental and paleogeomagnetic tracing studies from Chinese loess 10Be have progressed in recent years (Zhou et al. 2007a,b, 2010). In this approach, 10Be flux determined from sediment concentration and accumulation rate may be used to recover information about paleomonsoon rainfall rates as well as past variations in the geomagnetic field strength. However, these methods require that a correction be made for residual undecayed 10Be in remobilized dust. To better understand the feature of the 10Be signals related to the remobilized dust, we report the first observational study on 10Be concentration of modern falling dust using the 3MV multi-element accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) in the Xi'an AMS Center. Ten samples collected at Ansai observation station (109°19′E, 36°51′N) in northern China from May 2008 to June 2009 are measured along with 3 chemical blanks. The results clearly show that the 10Be content of modern falling dust is relatively uniform, with a mean value of 1.21 x 108 atoms/g, a measurement similar to that of Chinese loess (Zhou et al. 2007a) and to the value found in the study by Shen et al. (2009) on dust 10Be falling near Dingbian, China (1.25 ± 0.06 x 108 atoms/g). Despite the fact that modern dust flux is much higher in spring relative to summer in northern China, 10Be concentration in falling dust remains fairly constant. In addition, we find that dust 10Be concentration is roughly independent of the local precipitation changes. This feature might be considered as an analogue to improve our understanding on the fundamental information of the source component contained in loess 10Be records and its spatial/temporal distribution features.
A robust immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) is proposed to simulate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in this work. Compared with the conventional IB-LBM, the current method employs the fractional step technique to solve the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with a forcing term. Consequently, the non-physical oscillation of body force calculation, which is frequently encountered in the traditional IB-LBM, is suppressed greatly. It is of importance for the simulation of FSI problems. In the meanwhile, the no-slip boundary condition is strictly satisfied by using the velocity correction scheme. Moreover, based on the relationship between the velocity correction and forcing term, the boundary force can be calculated accurately and easily. A few test cases are first performed to validate the current method. Subsequently, a series of FSI problems, including the vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder, an elastic filament flapping in the wake of a fixed cylinder and sedimentation of particles, are simulated. Based on the good agreement between the current results and those in the literature, it is demonstrated that the proposed IB-LBM has the capability to handle various FSI problems effectively.
The Endangered giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most threatened mammals. The species has experienced declines in its population and habitat as a result of human disturbance. We investigated the influence of human disturbance on habitat use by giant pandas in the Daxiangling Mountains, in China's Sichuan Province. We mapped all signs of giant panda and all locations of seven types of human disturbance in the study area. We used correlation analysis, generalized linear models, and Akaike information criteria to analyse the influence of the various types of human disturbances on habitat use by the giant panda. Our results showed that habitat use was positively correlated with elevation and distance from roads, residences, hydropower stations and logging or tree-felling sites, but negatively correlated with distance from bamboo shoot collection sites and trap sites. We found that the road-effect zone spanned a distance of c. 1,200 m and that human residence could affect the intensity of habitat use by giant pandas at distances > 2,500 m. The effect of roads on habitat use was probably influenced by the association of roads with residences, hydropower stations and mines. In the area occupied by giant pandas, we recommend increased regulation to minimize the expansion and impact of roads, residences, hydropower stations and logging activities.
Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was performed to in situ study the Cu–Ni cross-interaction in Cu/Sn/Ni solder joints under temperature gradient during soldering. The direction of temperature gradient significantly influenced the Cu–Ni cross-interaction. When Ni was the hot end, both Cu and Ni atoms could diffuse to the opposite interfaces, resulting in the occurrence of the Cu–Ni cross-interaction at both interfaces. The consumption of the Cu cold end was abnormally large, whereas that of the Ni hot end was limited. When Cu was the hot end, only Cu atoms could diffuse to the opposite interface, resulting in the occurrence of the Cu–Ni cross-interaction only at the cold end. The Cu hot end was seriously consumed, whereas the Ni cold end was still intact. The interfacial intermetallic compounds were always thicker at the cold end than at the hot end, especially at the Ni/Sn cold end. Cu imposed more damaging effect than Ni under temperature gradient. Based on the atomic fluxes, a model was proposed to discuss the effect of temperature gradient on the Cu–Ni cross-interaction and the interfacial reactions in the Cu/Sn/Ni solder joints.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method for measuring 129I in environmental samples available today, with a detection limit of about 10–15 for 129I/127I. A drawback of the technique is the time-consuming chemical separation required to prepare AMS targets from raw samples. This step significantly limits applications requiring rapid analyses and large numbers of samples, for example, in monitoring studies associated with nuclear accidents. This work introduces a direct method for 129I measurements by AMS that does not require chemical separation. In this approach, stable iodine (127I) is added to a matrix of niobium (Nb) powder and mixed with dried raw sample. This mixture is pressed directly into a sputter target for AMS analysis. Two types of environmental samples have been tested in this work, seaweed and sediment. No anomalous behavior was noted in the Cs+ sputtering behavior of the targets prepared from these materials. The 129I/127I ratios and 129I concentrations measured by this rapid method were found to be in agreement with reported values that used a conventional AMS method for the same material. Based on our findings, we expect that such rapid measurements can be applied to a wide variety of materials, in addition to seaweed and sediment, as long as the sputtering-induced adverse effects do not prevent the stable operation of the ion source. The method is especially useful for screening large numbers of samples before more precise analyses are made.