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We evaluated whether memory recall following an extended (1 week) delay predicts cognitive and brain structural trajectories in older adults.
Clinically normal older adults (52–92 years old) were followed longitudinally for up to 8 years after completing a memory paradigm at baseline [Story Recall Test (SRT)] that assessed delayed recall at 30 min and 1 week. Subsets of the cohort underwent neuroimaging (N = 134, mean age = 75) and neuropsychological testing (N = 178–207, mean ages = 74–76) at annual study visits occurring approximately 15–18 months apart. Mixed-effects regression models evaluated if baseline SRT performance predicted longitudinal changes in gray matter volumes and cognitive composite scores, controlling for demographics.
Worse SRT 1-week recall was associated with more precipitous rates of longitudinal decline in medial temporal lobe volumes (p = .037), episodic memory (p = .003), and executive functioning (p = .011), but not occipital lobe or total gray matter volumes (demonstrating neuroanatomical specificity; p > .58). By contrast, SRT 30-min recall was only associated with longitudinal decline in executive functioning (p = .044).
Memory paradigms that capture longer-term recall may be particularly sensitive to age-related medial temporal lobe changes and neurodegenerative disease trajectories.
We recently found that, in mice, independently of orosensory input, sucrose consumption is sufficient to condition the development of spout preferences and dopamine release in the ventral striatum.
To clarify if the appetitive behavioral and dopaminergic responses to the postingestive effects of calorie-containing sugars reflect preabsorptive or postabsorptive events.
To understand if endovenous injection of glucose is sufficient to condition spout preferences and dopamine release.
Measurements of the behavioural, metabolic and neurochemical effects of the administration of glucose solutions, enterically, and in the jugular (JV) or hepatic-portal (HPV) veins of rats.
High concentration glucose solutions administered in the JV were sufficient to condition spout preferences in a two-bottle behavioral task. Additionally, a low concentration glucose solution conditioned robust behavioral responses when administered in the HPV, but not the JV. Finally, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we found that, in accordance to behavioral findings, a low concentration glucose solution caused an increase of spontaneous dopamine release events in the nucleus accumbens shell when administered in the HPV, but not the JV.
The postabsorptive effects of glucose are sufficient to mimic the behavioral and dopaminergic responses that result from sugar consumption. Furthermore, glycemia levels in the HPV contribute more significantly for this effect than systemic glycemia, arguing for the participation of an intra-abdominal visceral sensor for glucose.
There is little evidence to guide pharmacological treatment in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.
To investigate the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine on survival and function in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.
This was a naturalistic longitudinal follow-up of a clinical cohort of 310 people with Down syndrome diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease collected from specialist community services in England.
Median survival time (5.59 years, 95% CI 4.67–6.67) for those on medication (n = 145, mainly cholinesterase inhibitors) was significantly greater than for those not prescribed medication (n = 165) (3.45 years, 95% CI 2.91–4.13, log-rank test P<0.001). Sequential assessments demonstrated an early effect in maintaining cognitive function.
Cholinesterase inhibitors appear to offer benefit for people with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease that is comparable with sporadic Alzheimer's disease; a trial to test the effect of earlier treatment (prodromal Alzheimer's disease) in Down syndrome may be indicated.
Declaration of interest
A.S. has undertaken consulting for Ono Pharmaceuticals, outside the submitted work. Z.W. has received a consultancy fee and grant from GE Healthcare, outside the submitted work.
There is limited empirical information on service-level outcome domains and indicators for the large number of people with intellectual disabilities being treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals.
This study identified and developed the domains that should be used to measure treatment outcomes for this population.
A systematic review of the literature highlighted 60 studies which met eligibility criteria; they were synthesised using content analysis. The findings were refined within a consultation and consensus exercises with carers, patients and experts.
The final framework encompassed three a priori superordinate domains: (a) effectiveness, (b) patient safety and (c) patient and carer experience. Within each of these, further sub-domains emerged from our systematic review and consultation exercises. These included severity of clinical symptoms, offending behaviours, reactive and restrictive interventions, quality of life and patient satisfaction.
To index recovery, services need to measure treatment outcomes using this framework.
The effects of tree improvement on factors likely to influence tree stability were investigated using clonal Sitka spruce trees that had been grown for 11 years on an unploughed nursery site. The distribution of biomass between root and shoot, and within the root systems of trees from five improved clones, was examined and compared with control trees grown from unimproved cuttings and transplants. The direction (azimuth) of growth and dimensions of the main woody roots were also measured. Differences between clones were found in allocation of biomass between root and shoot, and in root system architecture. Large differences were found between clones in proportions of below-ground biomass allocated to stumps and woody roots (which function for anchorage). These results indicate that root: shoot ratio can be a poor indicator of tree stability when the stump is included as part of the root biomass. The distribution of root origins around the stump showed no significant clumping but the allocation of biomass between roots was found to differ between tree types. On average, the improved clones had allocated biomass to fewer roots than the controls. The amount of branching in the proximal 45 cm of the root system also differed between clones. Distribution of root cross-sectional area around the tree was significantly asymmetric in two of the clones. Overall, root biomass was allocated more to the lee side of the prevailing wind direction. The substantial differences found in allocation between root and shoot, and within the root system, may have implications for the wind stability of trees and could present opportunities for improving stability by clonal selection.
Damage by windthrow causes important economic losses to forestry in northern Europe.
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