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Nationwide registry data of patients with single-ventricle physiology have been rarely reported. The Medical Aid Program for Chronic Pediatric Diseases of Specified Categories (Japan) has contributed to the financial support of medical expense for patients younger than 20 years with chronic paediatric disease, and almost all children in Japan who require disease-specific treatment voluntarily apply to this programme. The epidemiology and medium- to long-term outcome of patients following a Fontan procedure were investigated using the database. The usefulness of this epidemiologic investigation in identifying real-world objectives and clinical applications was also examined. A total of 2862 patients who underwent a Fontan operation were identified from 18,589 patients with chronic heart disease registered to the medical aid programme. The details of symptoms, treatment, and somatic growth were evaluated, from which we were able to clarify the nationwide data regarding the current status of post-Fontan patients younger than 20 years. This study elucidated the current status of post-Fontan patients under 20 years of age in Japan. Data analysis of the Medical Aid Program for Chronic Pediatric Diseases of Specified Categories cohort provided useful information towards understanding the comprehensive status of patients with chronic heart disease and contributed to improved disease management.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease spreading worldwide that has been reported to worsen the development and progression of other diseases (cancer, vascular diseases and dementia). To establish functional rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects, we developed mutant rice lines, which lack one or two gene(s) related to starch synthesis, and evaluated their effects. Powder of mutant rice lines or other grains was loaded to rats fasted overnight (oral grain powder loading test). Incremental area under time-concentration curves (iAUC) were calculated with monitored blood glucose levels. Rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects were separated by cluster analysis with calculated iAUC. A double mutant rice #4019 (starch synthase IIIa (ss3a)/branching enzyme IIb (be2b)), one of the screened mutant rice lines, was fed to Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model for type 2 diabetes, for 5 weeks. Plasma levels of C-peptide, a marker of pancreatic insulin secretion, were measured with ELISA. For in vitro study, a rat pancreatic cell line was cultured with a medium containing rat serum which was sampled from rats fed #4019 diet for 2 d. After 24-h of incubation, an insulin secretion test was performed. Through the oral rice powder loading test, seven rice lines were identified as antidiabetic rice lines. The intake of #4019 diet increased plasma C-peptide levels of GK rats. This result was also observed in vitro. In rat serum added to cell medium, ornithine was significantly increased by the intake of #4019. In conclusion, the mutant rice #4019 promoted pancreatic insulin secretion via elevation of serum ornithine levels.
This paper examines the transnational migratory process and identity formation of a Japanese astronomer, Mutsumi Ishitkuta (born 1930). He moved to Peru in 1957 to build a solar observatory in the Andes Mountains, and settled there to develop a foundation for basic sciences in Peru. Through life story interviews, I explore the transnational migratory process of this scientist focusing on his profession in relationship to certain people, events, and situations that contributed to his identity formation. Tracing Ishitsuka's story may enable us to deepen our thoughts of scientists' identity and their role for the society.