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The notion of an m-algebraic lattice, where m stands for a cardinal number, includes numerous special cases, such as complete lattice, algebraic lattice, and prime algebraic lattice. In formal concept analysis, one fundamental result states that every concept lattice is complete, and conversely, each complete lattice is isomorphic to a concept lattice. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an m-approximable concept on each context. The m-approximable concept lattice derived from the notion is an m-algebraic lattice, and conversely, every m-algebraic lattice is isomorphic to an m-approximable concept lattice of some context. Morphisms on m-algebraic lattices and those on contexts are provided, called m-continuous functions and m-approximable morphisms, respectively. We establish a categorical equivalence between LATm, the category of m-algebraic lattices and m-continuous functions, and CXTm, the category of contexts and mapproximable morphisms.We prove that LATm is cartesian closed whenevermis regular and m > 2. By the equivalence of LATm and CXTm, we obtain that CXTm is also cartesian closed under same circumstances. The notions of a concept, an approximable concept, and a weak approximable concept are showed to be special cases of that of an m-approximable concept.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
170 patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment Function (GAF), and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-weeks, 8-weeks and 3-monthsfollow-up.
At 4-weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5%vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36-0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8-weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4-weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32-0.48) . At 3-months follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.02-4.42, p=0.04); and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27-6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
In order to solve joint-angle drift problem of dual redundant manipulators at acceleration-level, an acceleration-level tri-criteria optimization motion planning (ALTC-OMP) scheme is proposed, which combines the minimum acceleration norm, repetitive motion planning, and infinity-norm acceleration minimization solutions via weighting factor. This scheme can resolve the joint-angle drift problem of dual redundant manipulators which will arise in single criteria or bi-criteria scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme considers joint-velocity joint-acceleration physical limits. The proposed scheme can not only guarantee joint-velocity and joint-acceleration within their physical limits, but also ensure that final joint-velocity and joint-acceleration are near to zero. This scheme is realized by dual redundant manipulators which consist of left and right manipulators. In order to ensure the coordinated operation of manipulators, two motion planning problems are reformulated as two general quadratic program (QP) problems and further unified into one standard QP problem, which is solved by a simplified linear-variational-inequalities-based primal-dual neural network at the acceleration-level. Computer-simulation results based on dual PUMA560 redundant manipulators further demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed ALTC-OMP scheme to resolve joint-angle drift problem arising in the dual redundant manipulators.
To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
Objective: Deficits in the semantic learning strategy were observed in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in our previous study. In the present study, we explored the contributions of executive function and brain structure changes to the decline in the semantic learning strategy in aMCI. Methods: A neuropsychological battery was used to test memory and executive function in 96 aMCI subjects and 90 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The semantic clustering ratio on the verbal learning test was calculated to evaluate learning strategy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were measured on MRI with the MTA and Fazekas visual rating scales, respectively. Results: Compared to HCs, aMCI subjects had poorer performance in terms of memory, executive function, and the semantic clustering ratio (P < .001). In aMCI subjects, no significant correlation between learning strategy and executive function was observed. aMCI subjects with obvious MTA demonstrated a lower semantic clustering ratio than those without MTA (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the learning strategies between subjects with high-grade WMH and subjects with low-grade WMH. Conclusion: aMCI subjects showed obvious impairment in the semantic learning strategy, which was attributable to MTA but independent of executive dysfunction and subcortical WMH. These findings need to be further validated in large cohorts with biomarkers identified using volumetric brain measurements. (JINS, 2019, 25, 706–717)
China has been undergoing dramatic socio-economic and demographic changes in the last few decades. The rapid growth of the ageing population will pose tremendous challenges to its public health and social welfare system. This study aims to examine how urbanisation has impacted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among middle-aged and older Chinese in two decades, from 1991 to 2011. Data were drawn from a nationwide longitudinal data-set of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (sweeps 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011). Participants aged ⩾45 years old were included. A dynamic urbanisation index was created for each community (village or neighbourhood) based on community-level data that can reveal the heterogeneity within and across places and capture dimensions of social, economic and physical characteristics of urban living over time and space. Multi-level modelling analyses (level 1: occasions; level 2: individuals; level 3: households; level 4: communities) were performed on outcomes of CVD risks such as body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The results show upward trends in all CVD risks for both genders over 20 years of urbanisation after adjustment for socio-economic and demographic confounders. Urbanisation in China is associated with absolute increases in CVD risks over time among its middle-aged and older people, despite its contribution to relative reduction of the rural–urban gap over time. This is particularly true for women from the least urbanised areas. It is relevant to inform policy-making processes to target the most vulnerable groups of older people in China during its rapid urbanisation process. There is a possibility for policy intervention to reduce inequality during the process of China's planned urbanisation.
Soil moisture is a key factor in the ecohydrological cycle in water-limited ecosystems, and it integrates the effects of climate, soil, and vegetation. The water balance and the hydrological cycle are significantly important for vegetation restoration in water-limited regions, and these dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study, the soil moisture and water balance were modelled with the stochastic soil water balance model in the Loess Plateau, China. This model was verified by monitoring soil moisture data of black locust plantations in the Yangjuangou catchment in the Loess Plateau. The influences of a rainfall regime change on soil moisture and water balance were also explored. Three meteorological stations were selected (Yulin, Yan'an, and Luochuan) along the precipitation gradient to detect the effects of rainfall spatial variability on the soil moisture and water balance. The results showed that soil moisture tended to be more frequent at low levels with decreasing precipitation, and the ratio of evapotranspiration under stress in response to rainfall also changed from 74.0% in Yulin to 52.3% in Luochuan. In addition, the effects of a temporal change in rainfall regime on soil moisture and water balance were explored at Yan'an. The soil moisture probability density function moved to high soil moisture in the wet period compared to the dry period of Yan'an, and the evapotranspiration under stress increased from 59.5% to 72% from the wet period to the dry period. The results of this study prove the applicability of the stochastic model in the Loess Plateau and reveal its potential for guiding the vegetation restoration in the next stage.
Composite hydrogels based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and graphene oxide (GO) were developed and used for adsorption of phenol. The single network composite hydrogel (SNCH) was first prepared by crosslinking of HPC and GO by epichlorohydrin; then the SNCH was treated with polyethyleneimine solution, forming the double network composite hydrogel (DNCH). The DNCH exhibited better adsorption capacity than the SNCH due to larger surface area and more functional groups. The possible adsorption mechanism of the composite hydrogels toward phenol involved electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and π–π interactions. Study on dynamic adsorption behavior of phenol by SNCH and DNCH indicated that the breakthrough time increased when the initial concentration and feed flow rate of phenol decreased. Furthermore, the breakthrough time of DNCH was longer than that of SNCH at all operating conditions due to the relatively higher adsorption capacity of DNCH. The SNCH and DNCH could be repeatedly used without significant loss in the initial binding affinity after six adsorption–desorption cycles, which indicated that the composite hydrogels were qualified for practical application.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in Guangdong Province, South China, 1440 fecal samples were collected from 10 farms and screened for Cryptosporidium with PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4.38% (63/1440), and the infection rates in preweaned calves, postweaned calves, heifers and adults were 6.4% (19/297), 6.19% (33/533), 1.48% (4/271) and 2.06% (7/339), respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 33), Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 22) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n = 8) were detected by DNA sequence analysis of the 63 positive samples, and C. andersoni was identified as the most common species on the dairy cattle farms. In preweaned calves, C. bovis was the most prevalent species (9/19, 47.4%). In contrast, C. andersoni was the predominant species (19/33, 57.6%) in postweaned calves and the only species found in heifers and adults. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was not detected in this study. Twenty-four C. andersoni isolates were successfully classified into three multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes. MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 was the predominant subtype, and MLST subtype A2,A5,A2,A1, previously found in sheep, was detected in cattle for the first time. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the C. andersoni isolates had a clonal genetic population structure. However, further molecular studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Guangdong.
This study analyzed and assessed publication trends in articles on “disaster medicine,” using scientometric analysis. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on March 27, 2017. A total of 564 publications on disaster medicine were identified. There was a mild increase in the number of articles on disaster medicine from 2008 (n=55) to 2016 (n=83). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness published the most articles, the majority of articles were published in the United States, and the leading institute was Tohoku University. F. Della Corte, M. D. Christian, and P. L. Ingrassia were the top authors on the topic, and the field of public health generated the most publications. Terms analysis indicated that emergency medicine, public health, disaster preparedness, natural disasters, medicine, and management were the research hotspots, whereas Hurricane Katrina, mechanical ventilation, occupational medicine, intensive care, and European journals represented the frontiers of disaster medicine research. Overall, our analysis revealed that disaster medicine studies are closely related to other medical fields and provides researchers and policy-makers in this area with new insight into the hotspots and dynamic directions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:165–172)
We are constructing a collector for capturing Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and space debris on space shuttle. The unit consists of three pieces of thin polyester film, equally spaced 7 cm apart, and an aerogel disk of 3 cm thickness. For each particle captured in the aerogel disk, we determine its direction of impact and its speed, from which we can trace its trajectory. The purpose of the experiment is to study the compositions of IDPs from different origins.
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), such as MoS2, WS2 have attracted attention due to their mechanical and electronic properties in their two dimensional (2D) structures. Here, we report a facile growth of monolayer TMDC using oxide source materials with the assistant of NaCl. The addition of NaCl can enhance the lateral growth and widen the growth window of TMDC. Through carefully controlling the growth parameters, large area growth of TMDC can be achieved. Two steps E-beam lithography was utilized to fabricate electrodes of TMDC. The phototransistors made from the CVD grown TMDC show strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC). It was finally shown that TMDC device capping with h-BN could have suppressed PPC effects.
Anti-corruption research has highlighted the potential for grassroots monitoring to improve governance outcomes, but the conditions under which citizens are willing to report bribery remain under-studied. Are individuals from some societies socialized into a “culture of corruption” that makes them more accepting of malfeasance, or is the failure to denounce wrongdoing simply a response to low-quality enforcement institutions? I conduct a laboratory experiment to examine how the propensity to report corruption differs between Northern and Southern Italians, two populations experiencing different levels of corruption in everyday life. For each group, I experimentally manipulate the quality of enforcement institutions. When given high-quality institutions, all participants are more willing to report corruption. Moreover, Southerners and Northerners behave similarly when placed within the same institutional environments. These results suggest that high-corruption societies are not “culturally” predisposed to tolerate malfeasance. Rather, improving the capacity of enforcement institutions may significantly strengthen accountability norms.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum. These data indicated that AFB1 caused endogenous metabolic changes in various metabolic pathways, including cell membrane-associated metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, lipids, and amino acid metabolism. These findings provide both a comprehensive insight into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced adverse effects on dairy goats and a method for monitoring dairy animals exposed to low doses of AFB1.
To prevent spinning of the upper non-rotated part of the electromechanical drill, an ‘anti-torque system’ has to be included in the downhole unit. At the same time, the anti-torque must allow the drill to move up and down the borehole during drilling and tripping operations. Usually the anti-torque system has a blade form of various designs that engages with the borehole wall and counteracts the torque from the stator of the driving motor. This paper presents a review of the different anti-torque systems and test results with selected designs (leaf spring, skate and U-shaped anti-torque systems). Experiments showed that the skate anti-torque system can provide the maximal holding torque between 67 and 267 Nm−1 depending on the skates’ outer diameter and ice temperature, while the leaf spring anti-torque system can provide only 2.5–40 N m−1 (in case of straight contact between the ice and the leaf springs). The total resistance force to axial movement of the skate anti-torque system lies in the range 209–454N if the system is vibrating. For the leaf spring anti-torque system, the total axial resistance force is far less (19–243 N).
Electromechanical cable-suspended drilling technology is considered one of the most feasible methods for subglacial bedrock drilling. The outstanding feature of this technology is that the bit load produced by the drill weight is usually within the range 1.5–4 kN while the recommended load for diamond drilling is 10–30 kN or even more. Therefore, searching for the diamond bits that can drill in extremely hard formations with minimal load and acceptable rates of penetration and torque is the necessary step to prove the feasibility of electromechanical subglacial drilling technology. A special test stand has been designed and constructed to examine the impregnated, surface-set, toothed and specially manufactured bionic drill bits. The results of experiments with ten types of drill bits show that the toothed diamond drill bit has the highest penetration rate of 3.18 m h−1 in very hard and abrasive granite under a 3 kN load. The torque (28.7 Nm) and power consumption (1.5 kW) of toothed drill bits are acceptable for cable-suspended drilling. The penetration rates of bionic drill bits may also be considered suitable and fall within the range 1.0–1.69 m h−1 under the lowest tested load.
The Chinese First Deep Ice-Core Drilling Project DK-1 has commenced at Kunlun station in the Dome A region, the highest plateau in Antarctica. During the first season, within the 28th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) 2011/12 the pilot hole was drilled and reamed in order to install a 100 m deep fiberglass casing. In the next season, 29th CHINARE 2012/13, the deep ice-core drilling system was installed, and all the auxiliary equipment was connected and commissioned. After filling the hole with drilling fluid (n-butyl acetate), three runs of ‘wet’ ice-core drilling were carried out and a depth of 131.24 m was reached. Drilling to the bedrock at the target depth of ∼3100 m is planned to be completed during a further four seasons. We describe the work in progress and the status of equipment for the Dome A drilling project.