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The Ape that Understood the Universe is the story of the strangest animal in the world: the human animal. It opens with a question: How would an alien scientist view our species? What would it make of our sex differences, our sexual behavior, our altruistic tendencies, and our culture? The book tackles these issues by drawing on two major schools of thought: evolutionary psychology and cultural evolutionary theory. The guiding assumption is that humans are animals, and that like all animals, we evolved to pass on our genes. At some point, however, we also evolved the capacity for culture - and from that moment, culture began evolving in its own right. This transformed us from a mere ape into an ape capable of reshaping the planet, travelling to other worlds, and understanding the vast universe of which we're but a tiny, fleeting fragment. Featuring a new foreword by Michael Shermer.
To update current estimates of non–device-associated urinary tract infection (ND-UTI) rates and their frequency relative to catheter-associated UTIs (CA-UTIs) and to identify risk factors for ND-UTIs.
Academic teaching hospital.
All adult hospitalizations between 2013 and 2017 were included. UTIs (device and non-device associated) were captured through comprehensive, hospital-wide active surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definitions and methodology.
From 2013 to 2017 there were 163,386 hospitalizations (97,485 unique patients) and 1,273 UTIs (715 ND-UTIs and 558 CA-UTIs). The rate of ND-UTIs remained stable, decreasing slightly from 6.14 to 5.57 ND-UTIs per 10,000 hospitalization days during the study period (P = .15). However, the proportion of UTIs that were non–device related increased from 52% to 72% (P < .0001). Female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–2.50) and increasing age were associated with increased ND-UTI risk. Additionally, the following conditions were associated with increased risk: peptic ulcer disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.04–4.86), immunosuppression (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15–1.91), trauma admissions (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02–1.81), total parenteral nutrition (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.35–2.94) and opioid use (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.10–2.32). Urinary retention (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.96–2.07), suprapubic catheterization (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 0.88–5.91), and nephrostomy tubes (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 0.83–4.93) may also increase risk, but estimates were imprecise.
Greater than 70% of UTIs are now non–device associated. Current targeted surveillance practices should be reconsidered in light of this changing landscape. We identified several modifiable risk factors for ND-UTIs, and future research should explore the impact of prevention strategies that target these factors.
We present three new analyses of existing data from past fieldwork at Teotihuacan. First, we confirm and refine the wealth-based housing typology of Millon's Teotihuacan Mapping Project (TMP). Second, we analyze the spatial configurations of excavated compounds, using network methods to identify the size and layout of individual dwellings within walled compounds. Third, we use those results to generate the first population estimate for the city based on measurements from the TMP map. We extrapolate the average sizes of dwellings from excavated compounds to the entire sample of mapped residences as depicted on the TMP map of the city. We generate a range of population estimates, of which we suggest that 100,000 persons is the most reasonable estimate for the Xolalpan-Metepec population of Teotihuacan. These analyses show that legacy data from fieldwork long past can be used to answer research questions that are relevant and important today.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
High definition video from a towed camera system was used to describe the deep-sea benthic habitats within an elongate depression located at the western margin of Rockall Bank in the Hatton–Rockall Basin. At depths greater than 1190 m, an extensive area (10 km long by 1.5 km wide) of what appeared to be reduced sediments, bacterial mats and flocculent matter indicated possible cold-seep habitat. Plumes of sediment-rich fluid were observed alongside raised elongate features that gave topographic relief to the otherwise flat seafloor. In the deepest section of the depression (1215 m) dense flocculent matter was observed suspended in the water column, in places obscuring the seabed. Away from the bacterial mats, the habitat changed rapidly to sediments dominated by tube-dwelling polychaete worms and then to deep-sea sedimentary habitats more typical for the water depth (sponges and burrowing megafauna in areas of gentle slopes, and coral gardens on steeper slopes).
Objectives: The present study examined the relative contribution of recent or long-term heading to neuropsychological function in amateur adult soccer players. Participants and Methods: Soccer players completed a baseline questionnaire (HeadCount-12m) to ascertain heading during the prior 12 months (long-term heading, LTH) and an online questionnaire (HeadCount-2w) every 3 months to ascertain heading during the prior 2 weeks (recent heading, RH). Cogstate, a battery of six neuropsychological tests, was administered to assess neuropsychological function. Generalized estimating equations were used to test if LTH or RH was associated with neuropsychological function while accounting for the role of recognized concussion. Results: A total of 311 soccer players completed 630 HeadCount-2w. Participants had an average age of 26 years. Participants headed the ball a median of 611 times/year (mean=1,384.03) and 9.50 times/2 weeks (mean=34.17). High levels of RH were significantly associated with reduced performance on a task of psychomotor speed (p=.02), while high levels of LTH were significantly associated with poorer performance on tasks of verbal learning (p=.03) and verbal memory (p=.04). Significantly better attention (p=.02) was detectable at moderately high levels of RH, but not at the highest level of RH. One hundred and seven (34.4%) participants reported a lifetime history of concussion, but this was not related to neuropsychological function and did not modify the association of RH or LTH with neuropsychological function. Conclusion: High levels of both RH and LTH were associated with poorer neuropsychological function, but on different domains. The clinical manifestations following repetitive exposure to heading could change with chronicity of exposure. (JINS, 2018, 24, 147–155)
Shifting prey distributions due to global warming are expected to generate dramatic ecosystem-wide changes in trophic structure within Arctic marine ecosystems. Yet a relatively poor understanding of contemporary Arctic food webs makes it difficult to predict the consequences of such changes for Arctic predators. Doing so requires quantitative approaches that can track contemporary changes in predator diets through time, using accurate, well-defined methods. Here we use fatty acids (FA) to quantify differences in consumer diet using permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests that characterize spatial and temporal changes in consumer FA signatures. Specifically we explore differences in Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) FA to differentiate their potential trophic role between Svalbard, Norway and Cumberland Sound, Canada. Greenland shark FA signatures revealed significant inter-annual differences, probably driven by varying seal and Greenland halibut responses to environmental conditions such as the NAO, bottom temperature, and annual sea-ice extent. Uncommon FA were also found to play an important role in driving spatial and temporal differences in Greenland shark FA profiles. Our statistical approach should facilitate quantification of changing consumer diets across a range of marine ecosystems.
To determine if changes to the Ontario Highway Traffic Act (OHTA) in 2009 and 2010 had an effect on the proportion of alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) presenting to a trauma centre over a 10-year period.
A retrospective review of the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre in southwestern Ontario was undertaken. The trauma registry is a database of all trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥12 and/or who had trauma team activation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Interrupted time series analyses with ARIMA modeling were performed on quarterly data from 2004-2013.
A total of 377 drivers with a detectable serum ethanol concentration (SEC) were treated at our trauma centre over the 10-year period, representing 21% of all MVCs. The majority (330; 88%) were male. The median age was 31 years, median SEC was 35.3 mmol/L, and median ISS was 21. A total of 29 (7.7%) drinking drivers died from their injuries after arriving to hospital. There was no change in the proportion of drinking drivers after the 2009 amendment, but there was a significant decline in the average SEC of drinking drivers after changes to the law. There was no difference in the proportion of drinking drivers ≤21 years after introduction of the 2010 amendment for young and novice drivers.
There was a significance decline in the average SEC of all drinking drivers after the 2009 OHTA amendment, suggesting that legislative amendments may have an impact on drinking before driving behaviour.
Radiocarbon, 18O, and chemical concentrations have been used to identify groundwater recharged during the last ice age near Nelson, New Zealand. Moutere Gravel underlies most of the Moutere Depression, a 30-km-wide system of valleys filled with Plio-Pleistocene gravel. The depression extends northwards into Tasman Bay, which was above sea level when the North and South Islands of New Zealand were connected during the last glaciation. The aquifers are tapped by bores up to 500 m deep. Shallow bores (50–100 m) tap “pre-industrial” Holocene water (termed the “modern” component) with 14C concentrations of 90 ± 10 percent modern carbon (pMC) and δ18O values of −6.8 ± 0.4, as expected for present-day precipitation. Deeper bores discharge water with lower 14C concentrations and more negative 18O values resulting from input of much older water from depth. The deep end-member of the mixing trend is identified as paleowater (termed the “glacial” component) with 14C concentration close to 0 pMC and more negative 18O values (-7.6). Mixing of the modern and glacial components gives rise to the variations observed in the 14C, 18O, and chemical concentrations of the waters. Identification of the deep groundwater as glacial water suggests that there may be a large body of such water onshore and offshore at deep levels. More generally, the influence of changing sea levels in the recent past (geologically speaking) on the disposition of groundwaters in coastal areas of New Zealand may have been far greater than we have previously realized.
Bio-inspired, hybrid architectures employing quantum dots (QDs) appended with functionally active biomolecules such as enzymes have the potential to be utilized in numerous applications. Some examples include nanosensors for medical diagnostics, chemical/biological threat detection, as well as “bio-factories” in complex industrial synthetic processes. The main advantage in creating these nanofactories is increased rates in catalysis and efficiency when enzymes are associated with nanoscaffolds, as shown in numerous studies. However, the mechanism for this enhancement remains elusive. Gaining a fundamental, mechanistic understanding of enzyme-QD nanostructures is important in the development of numerous device applications. In this work, we review an array of enzymes attached to QDs and generate a hypothesis in regards to the unique architecture of the enzyme-nanoparticle (NP) construct that leads to increases in catalysis. We highlight work with phosphotiresterase (PTE) attached to two distinctly sized QDs in neutralizing a simulant nerve agent, as well as in other enzyme systems.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
The last year of W. B. Yeats's life represents an astonishing literary finale: nineteen poems written or substantially revised, including celebrated poems like “Long- Legged Fly” and “The Circus Animal's Desertion.” This tremendous literary achievement, as James Pethica has observed, “provides a striking contrast to the ragged endings typical of most writers” (xxvi). One of Yeats's last creative acts on his deathbed was to draft a list of contents for what he must have suspected to be his final volume of poems (Pethica xxvi). Yeats arranged for the volume to open with his own epitaph in “Under Ben Bulben,” followed by six poems expressing bitter disappointment with contemporary Irish culture. These culminated in “The Statues,” a monumental poem in stately ottava rima. The poem that followed—“News for the Delphic Oracle”—was anything but stately in form or content. The significance of this placement, both for these two poems and for the volume as a whole, has so far gone unnoticed.
“The Statues” is at its heart a tragic poem. It charts the development of an aesthetic philosophy that enabled the ancient Greeks to triumph over Asia. This development was achieved through the power of statuary:
[…] for the men
That with a mallet or a chisel modelled these
Calculations that look but casual flesh, put down
All Asiatic vague immensities,
And not the banks of oars that swam upon
The many-headed foam at Salamis.
Europe put off that foam when Phidias
Gave women dreams and dreams their looking-glass. (VP 610)
For in crafting statuary of measured proportions, the sculptors were able to shape desire itself: they “[g]ave women dreams and dreams their looking-glass.” This had a eugenic effect upon the Greek race, generating heroes. As Yeats wrote in his provocative pamphlet On the Boiler (1939), the Greek sculptors thereby “gave to the sexual instinct of Europe its goal, its fixed type” (LE 249).