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Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia management in crop rotations. Kochia control varied by experimental site such that more variation in kochia control and biomass production was explained by experimental site than herbicide choice within a crop. Kochia control with herbicides currently labeled for use in sugar beet averaged 32% across locations. Kochia control was greatest and most consistent from corn herbicide programs (99%), followed by soybean (96%) and fallow (97%) herbicide programs. Kochia control from wheat herbicide programs was 93%. With respect to the availability of effective herbicide options, glyphosate-resistant kochia control was easiest in corn, soybean, and fallow, followed by wheat; and difficult to manage with herbicides in sugar beet.
Timing of weed emergence and seed persistence in the soil influence the ability to implement timely and effective control practices. Emergence patterns and seed persistence of kochia populations were monitored in 2010 and 2011 at sites in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Weekly observations of emergence were initiated in March and continued until no new emergence occurred. Seed was harvested from each site, placed into 100-seed mesh packets, and buried at depths of 0, 2.5, and 10 cm in fall of 2010 and 2011. Packets were exhumed at 6-mo intervals over 2 yr. Viability of exhumed seeds was evaluated. Nonlinear mixed-effects Weibull models were fit to cumulative emergence (%) across growing degree days (GDD) and to viable seed (%) across burial time to describe their fixed and random effects across site-years. Final emergence densities varied among site-years and ranged from as few as 4 to almost 380,000 seedlings m−2. Across 11 site-years in Kansas, cumulative GDD needed for 10% emergence were 168, while across 6 site-years in Wyoming and Nebraska, only 90 GDD were needed; on the calendar, this date shifted from early to late March. The majority (>95%) of kochia seed did not persist for more than 2 yr. Remaining seed viability was generally >80% when seeds were exhumed within 6 mo after burial in March, and declined to <5% by October of the first year after burial. Burial did not appear to increase or decrease seed viability over time but placed seed in a position from which seedling emergence would not be possible. High seedling emergence that occurs very early in the spring emphasizes the need for fall or early spring PRE weed control such as tillage, herbicides, and cover crops, while continued emergence into midsummer emphasizes the need for extended periods of kochia management.
Invasive species management is often more successful if desirable species are seeded after the target weed is controlled. However, control of invasive plants must be maintained following reseeding or the seeded species may fail to establish. A regional study conducted in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota evaluated the effect of aminopyralid, clopyralid, or picloram applied in the fall prior to fall-dormant seeding or seeding the following spring on cool- and warm-season native grass species establishment. Herbicides were applied at standard rates used to control invasive broadleaf weeds in the upper midwestern tallgrass prairie region of the United States. Cool-season species included Canada wildrye, green needlegrass, and intermediate wheatgrass. Warm-season species included big bluestem, little bluestem, sideoats grama, switchgrass, and Indiangrass. Aminopyralid did not reduce seedling establishment in either fall or spring seeding. Grasses generally were not affected by a pretreatment of the pyridine standards clopyralid or picloram either, with the exception of a slight reduction in fall-seeded establishment of intermediate wheatgrass. Picloram also slightly reduced fall-seeded establishment of Canada wildrye. Application of aminopyralid can safely be used to control susceptible invasive species preceding grass species establishment, with a safety margin similar to or slightly better than that with the pyridine standards clopyralid or picloram.
Canada thistle is a serious weed of many crop, rangeland, pasture, and natural areas throughout North America. Aminopyralid is a new pyridine carboxylic acid herbicide that has activity on Canada thistle at lower use rates than current standard treatments. The objectives of this study were to compare aminopyralid efficacy, rates, and application timing with several commercial standards for Canada thistle control. Studies were conducted across the Great Plains at ten locations, which encompassed a wide range of environments. Aminopyralid provided Canada thistle control comparable to picloram, picloram + 2,4-D amine, and clopyralid and better control than clopyralid + 2,4-D amine, dicamba, dicamba + 2,4-D amine and dicamba + diflufenzopyr. Canada thistle control was similar when aminopyralid was applied between 0.08 and 0.11 kg ai/ha and application timing (spring bolting vs. fall rosette/regrowth) did not strongly influence control 1 yr after treatment (YAT). Aminopyralid provided effective Canada thistle control at lower use rates than current commercial standards and might be useful in areas where herbicides such as picloram and clopyralid are not recommended for use.
Corn yield loss associated with common lambsquarters and giant foxtail in mixed-weed species communities was estimated from empirical equations based on early-season weed density, weed relative leaf area, or weed relative shoot volume in 1998 and 1999. The estimated maximum corn yield loss ranged up to 20% in 1998 but was 50% or more in 1999. Competition coefficients estimated from weed density (I values) or weed relative shoot volume (qV values) indicated that the weed species were equally competitive in 1998 but that common lambsquarters was more competitive than giant foxtail in 1999. In contrast, the relative leaf area–based competition coefficients (qL values) indicated that common lambsquarters and giant foxtail were equally competitive in both years. Weed species emerged at the same time as corn in 1998, whereas in 1999, common lambsquarters emerged 3 d earlier than corn and 1 d earlier than did giant foxtail. Earlier emergence of common lambsquarters was associated with greater cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) per plant compared with that of giant foxtail. Competition coefficients estimated from weed relative leaf area were similar between years for common lambsquarters but differed for giant foxtail. Similarly, the relationship between cumulative estimated IPAR and early-season relative leaf area was stable between years for common lambsquarters but not for giant foxtail. Consequently, competition coefficients were more consistent for common lambsquarters than for giant foxtail in mixed communities. The results suggest that the competitive ability of common lambsquarters and giant foxtail may not differ greatly in corn, but variability in corn yield loss between years was not adequately explained by these empirical models.
The widespread adoption of glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean in cropping
rotations often results in volunteer plants from the previous season
becoming problem weeds that require alternative herbicides for control. Corn
yield losses due to season-long volunteer soybean competition at several
densities in two growing seasons were used to define a hyperbolic yield loss
function. The maximum corn yield loss observed at high volunteer soybean
densities was about 56%, whereas, the incremental yield loss
(I) at low densities was 3.2%. Corn yield loss at low
volunteer soybean densities was similar to losses reported for low densities
of velvetleaf and redroot pigweed, with 10% yield loss estimated to occur at
3 to 4 volunteer soybean plants m−2. Several herbicides,
including dicamba with or without diflufenzopyr applied at the V2 growth
stage of volunteer soybean, provided > 90% control, demonstrating several
economical options to control volunteer glyphosate-resistant soybean in
glyphosate-resistant corn. Reevaluation of control recommendations may be
needed with commercialization of other genetically modified
herbicide-resistant soybean varieties.
The relative competitive ability of common lambsquarters and giant foxtail in mixed weed–corn communities was characterized in 1998 and 1999 using empirical models that described late-season weed biomass on the basis of weed density, early-season relative leaf area, or early-season relative shoot volume. Competition coefficients estimated from weed density were inconsistent between years because they indicated that giant foxtail was more competitive than common lambsquarters in 1998 but that common lambsquarters was more competitive than giant foxtail in 1999. In contrast, the competition coefficients based on relative leaf area and relative volume were consistent between years. Competition coefficients estimated from relative leaf area indicated that giant foxtail was more competitive than common lambsquarters in each year. Competition coefficients estimated from weed relative volume indicated that the relative competitive ability of each weed species was similar in each year. Weed relative competitive abilities were characterized further by describing the mechanisms of competition related to shoot height and width growth. Giant foxtail was taller than common lambsquarters shortly after emergence each year, but plasticity of common lambsquarters growth resulted in reduced height differential between the weed species over time. Even so, giant foxtail was taller than common lambsquarters at physiological maturity each year. Coefficients that described the ability of each weed species to crowd neighbors indicated that giant foxtail shoot width was affected more by increased common lambsquarters density and proportion than was common lambsquarters shoot width by giant foxtail. The greater ability of common lambsquarters to crowd neighbors relative to giant foxtail was attributed to the greater leaf area density (LAD) of common lambsquarters compared with that of giant foxtail. Although characterization of shoot height, width, LAD, and biomass elucidated in part the mechanisms of competition between these species, models that accounted for differences in early-season relative plant size were consistent between years, indicating that giant foxtail was equally or more competitive than common lambsquarters in corn.
Volunteer corn is often overlooked as a weed in soybean. To aid in management decisions, this study determined soybean yield loss attributed to volunteer corn and efficacy of various herbicides at several rates and timings. A hyperbolic equation estimated (R2 = 0.88) incremental yield loss (I) of 39.7% at low density when maximum yield loss (A) was constrained to 71%, the highest yield loss observed in these trials, revealing a more competitive plant than many common midwestern weedy species. Clethodim applied at 51 g ai ha−1 at V4 soybean resulted in > 90% volunteer corn control with < 5% soybean yield loss, whereas if applied at 12.7 g ai ha−1 volunteer corn control was 15%, but soybean yield was 50% greater than the nontreated control. On the basis of these data, the partial volunteer corn control improved soybean yield. Timing of glufosinate application influenced volunteer corn control. Glufosinate applied to 15-cm-tall corn resulted in 33% control, whereas applications to 36- to 91-cm corn resulted in > 70% control. Glufosinate combined with grass herbicides improved control to > 85%, with concomitant yield increases. Results demonstrated that volunteer corn substantially reduced soybean yield at low densities and yield increased when volunteer corn was controlled with various herbicides. On the basis of these results, and current soybean grain and herbicide prices, soybean yield gains from volunteer corn control could increase net return by > $150 ha−1.
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