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Yield Loss and Management of Volunteer Corn in Soybean

  • Jill Alms (a1), Michael Moechnig (a2), David Vos (a1) and Sharon A. Clay (a1)


Volunteer corn is often overlooked as a weed in soybean. To aid in management decisions, this study determined soybean yield loss attributed to volunteer corn and efficacy of various herbicides at several rates and timings. A hyperbolic equation estimated (R 2 = 0.88) incremental yield loss (I) of 39.7% at low density when maximum yield loss (A) was constrained to 71%, the highest yield loss observed in these trials, revealing a more competitive plant than many common midwestern weedy species. Clethodim applied at 51 g ai ha−1 at V4 soybean resulted in > 90% volunteer corn control with < 5% soybean yield loss, whereas if applied at 12.7 g ai ha−1 volunteer corn control was 15%, but soybean yield was 50% greater than the nontreated control. On the basis of these data, the partial volunteer corn control improved soybean yield. Timing of glufosinate application influenced volunteer corn control. Glufosinate applied to 15-cm-tall corn resulted in 33% control, whereas applications to 36- to 91-cm corn resulted in > 70% control. Glufosinate combined with grass herbicides improved control to > 85%, with concomitant yield increases. Results demonstrated that volunteer corn substantially reduced soybean yield at low densities and yield increased when volunteer corn was controlled with various herbicides. On the basis of these results, and current soybean grain and herbicide prices, soybean yield gains from volunteer corn control could increase net return by > $150 ha−1.

El maíz voluntario es frecuentemente ignorado como una maleza en campos de soja. Para ayudar a la toma de decisiones de manejo, este estudio determinó la pérdida de rendimiento atribuida al maíz voluntario y la eficacia de varios herbicidas a varias dosis y momentos de aplicación. Una ecuación hiperbólica estimó (R 2 = 0.88) pérdidas de rendimiento incrementales (I) de 39.7% a densidades bajas cuando la pérdida máxima de rendimiento se limitó a 71%, la cual fue la pérdida de rendimiento más alta observada en estos ensayos, lo que reveló que el maíz voluntario es una planta más competitiva que muchas especies de malezas comúnmente observadas en el medio oeste. Clethodim aplicado a 51 g ai ha−1 durante el estadio V4 de la soja resultó en >90% de control de maíz voluntario con <5% de pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soja, mientras que si se aplicó a 12.7 g ai ha−1 el control del maíz voluntario fue 15%, pero el rendimiento de la soja fue 50% mayor que el de control sin tratamiento. Con base en estos datos, el control parcial del maíz voluntario mejoró el rendimiento de la soja. El momento de aplicación de glufosinate influyó en el control del maíz voluntario. Glufosinate aplicado a plantas de maíz de 15 cm de altura resultó en 33% de control, mientras que aplicaciones a maíz de 36 a 91 cm de altura resultó en >70% de control. Glufosinate combinado con herbicidas para gramíneas mejoraron el control a >85%, con incrementos concomitantes de rendimiento. Los resultados demostraron que el maíz voluntario redujo sustancialmente el rendimiento de la soja a bajas densidades y el rendimiento incrementó cuando el maíz voluntario fue controlado con varios herbicidas. Con base en estos resultados y los precios actuales de grano de soja y de herbicidas, las ganancias en el rendimiento de la soja producto del control del maíz voluntario pudo incrementar la rentabilidad neta en >$150 ha−1.


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