To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Trauma patients in the extremes of age may require a specialized approach during a multiple-casualty incident (MCI).
The aim of this study was to examine the type of injuries encountered in children and elderly patients and the implications of these injuries for treatment and organization.
A review of medical record files of patients admitted in MCIs in one Level II trauma center was conducted. Patients were classified according to age: children (≤12 years), adults (between 12-65 years), and elders (≥65 years).
The files of 534 were screened: 31 (5.8%) children and 54 (10.1%) elderly patients. One-third of the elderly patients were either moderately or severely injured, compared to only 6.5% of the children and 11.1% of the adults (P<.001). Elderly patients required more blood transfusions (P=.0001), more computed tomography imaging (P=.0001), and underwent more surgery (P=.0004). Elders were hospitalized longer (P=.0003). There was no mortality among injured children, compared to nine (2.0%) of the adults and seven (13.0%) of the elderly patients (P<.0001). All the adult deaths occurred early and directly related to their injuries, whereas most of the deaths among the elderly patients (four out of seven) occurred late and were due to complications and multiple organ failure.
Injury at an older age confers an increased risk of complications and death in victims of MCIs.
AshkenaziI, EinavS, OlshaO, Turegano-FuentesF, KrauszMM, AlficiR. The Impact of Age upon Contingency Planning for Multiple-casualty Incidents Based on a Single Center’s Experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):492–497.
Heroin-assisted treatment has been found to be effective for people with severe opioid dependence who are not interested in or do poorly on methadone maintenance.
To study heroin-assisted treatment in people on methadone who continue intravenous heroin and in those who are heroin dependent but currently not in treatment.
In an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial, 1015 people with heroin dependence received a variable dose of injectable heroin (n=515) or oral methadone (n=500) for 12 months. Two response criteria, improvement of physical and/or mental health and decrease in illicit drug use, were evaluated in an intent-to-treat analysis.
Retention was higher in the heroin (67.2%) than in the methadone group (40.0%) and the heroin group showed a significantly greater response on both primary outcome measures. More serious adverse events were found in the heroin group, and were mainly associated with intravenous use.
Heroin-assisted treatment is more effective for people with opioid dependence who continue intravenous heroin while on methadone maintenance or who are not enrolled in treatment. Despite a higher risk, it should be considered for treatment resistance under medical supervision.