Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Belief systems as coping factors for traumatized refugees: a pilot study

  • Michael Brune (a1), Christian Haasen (a1), Michael Krausz (a1), Oktay Yagdiran (a1), Enrique Bustos (a2) and David Eisenman (a3)...

Summary

The severity of traumatization seems to correlate with a more severe course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (and other post-traumatic disorders), while firm belief systems have been found to be a protective factor against post-traumatic disorders. This study sought to determine the role of belief systems in the outcome of psychotherapy for traumatized refugees. The charts of 141 consecutively treated refugees were evaluated retrospectively. A firm belief system was found to be an important predictor for a better therapy outcome. The importance of a firm belief system as a coping factor, which should be used as an instrument in therapy, is discussed. © 2002 Éditions scientifiques et médicals Elsevier SAS

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail address:haasen@uke.uni-hamburg.de (C. Haasen).

References

Hide All
1Allodi, F., Stiasny, S.Women as torture victims. Can J Psychiatry 1990;35:144148.
2American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed.. Washington, DC: APA; 1994.
3Barudy, J.Self-help and mutual aid in a mental health program for political exiles Leuven: COLAT; 1981.
4Basoglu, M., Paker, M., Paker, Ö, Özmen, E., Marks, I., Incesu, C., Psychological effects of torture: a comparison of tortured with nontortured political activists in Turkey. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:7681.
5Basoglu, M., Paker, M., Özmen, E., Tasdemir, Ö, Sahin, D.Factors related to long-term traumatic stress responses in survivors of torture in Turkey. JAMA 1994;272:357363.
6Basoglu, M., Mineka, S., Paker, M., Aker, T., Livanou, M., Gok, S.Psychological preparedness for trauma as a protective factor in survivors of torture. Psychol M 1997;27:14211433.
7Behandlungszentrum für Folteropfer Berlin. Annual Report; 1997.
8Blanchard, E.B., Buckley, T.C., Hickling, E.J., Taylor, A.E.Posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid major depression: is the correlation an illusion?. J Anxiety Dis 1998;12:2137.
9Bleich, A., Koslowsky, M., Dolev, A., Lerer, B.Post traumatic stress disorder and depression. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170:479482.
10Bustos, E.Psychodynamic approaches in the treatment of torture survivors. In: Basoglu, M, Torture and its consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992. p. 333347.
11Calhoun, L.G., Cann, A., Tedeschi, R.G., McMillan, J.A correlational test of the relationship between posttraumatic growth, religion, and cognitive processing. J Traum Stress 2000;13:521527.
12Chung, M.C.Reviewing Frankl’s will to meaning and its implications for psychotherapy dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder. Med War 1995;11:4555.
13Cienfuegos, A.J., Monelli, C.The testimony of political repression as a therapeutic instrument. Am J Orthopsych 1983;53:4153.
14Connor, K., Sutherland, S., Tupler, L., Malik, M., Davidson, J.Fluoxetine in post-traumatic stress disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1999;175:1722.
15Davidson, J., Kudler, H., Smith, R., Mahorney, S.L., Lipper, S., Hammett, E., Saunders, W.B., Cavenar, J.O. JrTreatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with amitryptiline and placebo. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47:259266.
16Davidson, J.R.T., Colket, J.T.The eight item treatment outcome post-traumatic stress disorder scale: a brief measure to assess treatment outcome in post-traumatic stress disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;12:4145.
17Edlund, L., Söndergaard, H.P.Traumatiserade flyktingar i sluten psykiatrisk vård In: Hjern, A, editor. Diagnostik och behandling av traumatiserade flyktingar Lund: Studentlitteratur; 1995. 219228.
18Elldin, B., Gillberg, R., Gyllenhammar, C.Röda Korsets Centra för torterade flyktingar In: Hjern, A, editor Diagnostik och behandling av traumatiserade flyktingar Lund: Studentlitteratur; 1995. 3843.
19Folkman, S., Lazarus, R.S.The relationship between coping and emotion: implications for theory and research. Soc Sci M 1988;26:309317.
20Frankl, V.E.Man’s search for meaning. New York: Washington Square Press; 1985.
21Freedman, S.A., Brandes, D., Peri, T., Shalev, A.Predictors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:353359.
22Grimberg, L., Grimberg, R.Psychoanalytic perspectives on migration and exile. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1989.
23Gurris, N.Seelisches Trauma durch Folter – Heilung durch Psychotherapie?. In: Graessner, S, Gurris, N, Pross, C, editore. Folter – An der Seite der Überlebenden – Unterstützung und Therapien Munich: C. H. Beck; 1996. p. 4982.
24Haasen, C., Sardashti, H.Zusammenhang zwischen Depression und psychosozialer Belastung bei iranischen Migranten. Psychiat Prax 2000;27:7476.
25Haasen, C., Yagdiran, O., Mass, R., Krausz, M.Potential for misdiagnosis among Turkish migrants with psychotic disorders: a clinical controlled study in Germany. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000;101:125129.
26Hamilton, M.Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol 1967;6:278296.
27Herman, J.Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Traumatic Stress 1992;5:377392.
28Jaspers, K.Psychologie der Weltanschauungen. 6th ed.. Berlin: Springer; 1990.
29Kessler, R.C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., Nelson, C.B.Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:10481060.
30Kordon, D., Edelman, L., Lagos, D., Nicoletti, E.N., Bozzolo, R.C.Psychological effects of political repression Buenos Aires: Sudamericana/Planeta SA; 1988.
31Mollica, R.F., McInnes, K., Pham, T., Smith Fawzi, M.C., Murphy, E., Lin, L.The dose–effect relationships between torture and psychiatric symptoms in Vietnamese ex-political detainees and a comparison group. J Nerv Ment Dis 1998;186:543553.
32Mollica, R.F., McInnes, K., Poole, C., Tor, S.Dose–effect relationships of trauma to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Cambodian survivors of mass violence. Br J Psychiatry 1998;173:482488.
33National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)12 – CGI. Clinical Global Impressions In: Guy, W, Bonato, RR, editors. Manual for the ECDEU Assessment Battery Bethesda, MD: Chevy Chase; 1996. p. 121126.
34Paunovic, N., Ost, L.G.Cognitive-behavior therapy vs exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behav Res Ther 2001;39:11831197.
35Rasmussen, O.V.Medical aspects of torture. Dan Med Bull 1990;37:4556.
36Schröder, P.Ein klassisches Flüchtlingsproblem: das Psychotrauma. Spekt Psychiat Psychother Nervenheilk 1997;2:4246.
37Sherman, J.J.Effects of psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Traumatic Stress 1998;11:413435.
38Silove, D., McIntosh, P., Becker, R.Risk of retraumatization of asylumseekers in Australia. Austral NZ J Psychiatry 1993;27:606612.
39Silove, D., Sinnerbrink, I., Field, A., Manicavasagar, V., Steel, Z.Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: associations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170:351357.
40Silove, D.The psychosocial effects of torture, mass human rights violations, and refugee trauma: toward an integrated conceptual framework. J Nerv Ment Dis 1999;187:200207.
41Smith Fawzi, M.C., Murphy, E., Pham, T., Lin, L., Poole, C., Mollica, R.F.The validity of screening for post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression among Vietnamese former political prisoners. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:8793.
42Veer Van der, G.Counseling and therapy with refugees and victims of trauma. In: 2nd ed.. London: Willey & Sons; 1998.
43Van der Kolk, B.A., Pelcovitz, D., Roth, S., Mandel, F., McFarlane, A., Herman, J.L.Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: the complexity of adaptation of trauma. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:8393.
44Van Geus, H.The concept of organized violence. Health Hazards of Organized Violence. Proceedings of a Working Group. Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs and WHO Regional Office for Europe 1986.
45Van Velsen, C., Gorst-Unsworth, C., Turner, S.Survivors of torture and organized violence: demography and diagnosis. J Traumatic Stress 1996;9:181193.
46Vanista-Kosuta, A., Kosuta, M.Trauma and meaning. Croatian Med J 1998;39:5461.
47Yehuda, R., Kahana, B., Schmeidler, J., Southwick, S.M., Wilson, S., Giller, E.L.Impact of cumulative lifetime trauma and recent stress on current posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Holocaust survivors. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:18151818.

Keywords

Belief systems as coping factors for traumatized refugees: a pilot study

  • Michael Brune (a1), Christian Haasen (a1), Michael Krausz (a1), Oktay Yagdiran (a1), Enrique Bustos (a2) and David Eisenman (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Belief systems as coping factors for traumatized refugees: a pilot study

  • Michael Brune (a1), Christian Haasen (a1), Michael Krausz (a1), Oktay Yagdiran (a1), Enrique Bustos (a2) and David Eisenman (a3)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *