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Interest in electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (EHHMSs) is now widespread throughout the infection control community. We tested 2 types of EHHMS for accuracy. The type B EHHMS captured more HH events with superior accuracy. Hospitals considering an EHHMS should assess the technology’s ability to accurately capture HH performance in the clinical workflow.
Children are frequently victims of disasters. However, gaps remain in disaster planning for pediatric patients. The New York City Pediatric Disaster Coalition (NYCPDC) is funded by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to prepare NYC for mass casualty incidents that involve large numbers of children.
On April 26, 2018, the NYCPDC conducted a first full-scale exercise with the New York Fire Department (FDNY) testing evacuation, patient tracking, communications, and emergency response of the obstetrics, newborn, and neonatal units at Staten Island University Hospital North. The goal of the exercise was to evaluate current obstetrics/newborn/neonatal plans and assess the hospital’s ability to evacuate patients.
The exercise planning process included a review of existing obstetrics/newborn/neonatal plans, four group planning meetings, specific area meetings, and plan revisions. The exercise incorporated scenario-driven, operations-based activities, which challenged participants to employ the facility’s existing evacuation plans during an emergency.
The exercise assessed the following: communication, emergency operation plans, evacuation, patient tracking, supplies, and staffing. Internal and external evaluators rated exercise performance on a scale of 1-4. Evaluators completed an exercise evaluation guide based on the Master Scenario Event List.
An After Action Report was written based on the information from the exercise evaluation guides, participant feedback forms, hot wash session, and after-action review meeting. Strengths included the meaningful improvement of plans before the exercise (including the fire department) and the overall meeting of exercise objectives.
Lessons learned included: addressing gaps in effective internal and external communications, adequate supplies of space, staff, and equipment needed for vertical evacuations in addition to providing staging and alternate care sites with sufficient patient care and electrical power resources. The lessons learned are being utilized to improve existing hospital plans to prepare for future full-scale exercise and or real-time events.
Effects of a disaster on a community’s mental health can persist after the physical effects of the event have passed. The pediatric population is often overrepresented in disasters and prone to serious mental health disorders based on their age and parental/community response. Pediatric primary healthcare providers require the psychosocial skills necessary to work in disaster zones and to care for children in disasters.
Pediatric Disaster Mental Health Intervention (PDMHI) was initially developed in response to Superstorm Sandy’s impact on children and their families in New York City. The objective was to develop training for primary care providers in pediatric disaster mental healthcare and to study its impact on the trainees.
A faculty of experts in pediatric mental health, psychiatry, psychology, and disaster preparedness was convened to develop curriculum. The faculty developed a four-hour intervention to equip healthcare providers with the skills and knowledge necessary to care for pediatric patients with mental health problems stemming from a disaster via evaluation, triage, intervention, and referral.
Three PDMHI training sessions were held. A total of 67 providers were trained. Of these, there were 31 pediatricians, 18 nurses, 8 social workers, 4 psychologists, 2 psychiatrists, and 4 others. Pre- and post-tests measured knowledge before and impact 3 months post-intervention. 62.5% of responding primary care providers made changes to their practice. 92% felt better equipped to identify, treat, and refer patients. 81% would be willing to work in a disaster zone and felt prepared to treat patients with disaster mental health issues.
PDMHI covers psychosocial responses to disasters from normal to mental health disorders. Participants gained tools for managing pediatric mental health issues in primary care. Study data showed an increase in the participants perceived knowledge and skills about pediatric disaster mental health, and willingness to participate in future disasters.
Children, who comprise 25% of the US population, are frequently victims of disasters and have special needs during these events.
To prepare NYC for a large-scale pediatric disaster, NYCPDC has worked with an increasing number of providers that initially included a small number of hospitals and agencies. Through a cooperative team approach, stakeholders now include public health, emergency management, and emergency medical services, 28 hospitals, community-based providers, and the Medical Reserve Corps.
The NYCPDC utilized an inclusive iterative process model whereby a desired plan was achieved by stakeholders reviewing the literature and current practice through discussion and consensus building. NYCPDC used this model in developing a comprehensive regional pediatric disaster plan.
The Plan included disaster scene triage (adapted for pediatric use) to transport (with prioritization) to surge and evacuation. Additionally, site-specific plans utilizing Guidelines and Templates now include Pediatric Long-Term Care Facilities, Hospital Pediatric Departments, Pediatric and Ob/Newborn/Neonatal Intensive Care Services and Outpatient/Urgent Care Centers. A force multiplier course in critical care for non-intensivists is provided. An extensive Pediatric Exercise program has been used to develop, operationalize and revise plans based on lessons learned. This includes pediatric tabletop, functional and full-scale exercises at individual hospitals leading to citywide exercises at 13 and subsequently all 28 hospitals caring for children.
The NYCPDC has comprehensively planned for the special needs of children during disasters utilizing a pediatric coalition based regional approach that matches pediatric resources to needs to provide best outcomes.
The NYCPDC has responded to real-time events (H1N1, Haiti Earthquake, Superstorm Sandy, Ebola), and participated in local (NYC boroughs and executive leadership) and nationwide coalitions (National Pediatric Disaster Coalition). The NYCPDC has had the opportunity to present their Pediatric Disaster Planning and Response efforts at local, national and International conferences.
Children are frequently victims of disasters, however important gaps remain in pediatric disaster planning. This includes a lack of resources for pediatric preparedness planning for patients in outpatient/urgent-care facilities. The New York City Pediatric Disaster Coalition (NYCPDC) is funded by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to improve NYC’s pediatric disaster preparedness and response.
After creating planning resources in Pediatric Long-Term Care Facilities, Hospital Pediatric Departments, Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units and Obstetric/Newborn Services within NYC hospitals, the NYCPDC partnered with leaders and experts from outpatient/urgent-care facilities caring for pediatric patients and created the Pediatric Outpatient Disaster Planning Committee (PODPC). PODPC’s goal was to create guidelines and templates for use in disaster planning for pediatric patients at outpatient/urgent-care facilities.
The PODPC includes physicians, nurses, administrators, and emergency planning experts who have experience working with outpatient facilities. There were 21 committee members from eight organizations (the NYCPDC, DOHMH, Community Healthcare Association of NY State, NY State DOH, NYC Health and Hospitals, Maimonides Medical Center and Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center). The committee met six times over a four-month period and shared information to create disaster planning tools that meet the specific pediatric challenges in the outpatient setting.
Utilizing an iterative process including literature review, participant presentations, discussions review, and improvement of working documents, the final guidelines and templates for surge and evacuation of pediatric patients in outpatient/urgent care facilities were created in February 2018. Subsequently, model plans were completed and implemented at five NYC outpatient/urgent-care facilities.
An expert committee utilizing an iterative process successfully created disaster guidelines and templates for pediatric outpatient/urgent care facilities. They addressed the importance of matching the special needs of children to available space, staff, and equipment needs and created model plans for site-specific use.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
Thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide (UO2) is an important nuclear fuel performance property. Radiation- and fission-induced defects and microstructures, such as xenon (Xe) gas bubbles, can degrade the thermal conductivity of UO2 significantly. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the effect of Xe bubble size and pressure on the thermal conductivity of UO2. At a given porosity, thermal conductivity increases with Xe cluster size, then reaches a nearly saturated value at a cluster radius of 0.6 nm, demonstrating that dispersed Xe atoms result in a lower thermal conductivity than clustering them into bubbles. In comparison with empty voids of the same size, Xe-filled bubbles lead to a lower thermal conductivity when the number ratio of Xe atoms to uranium vacancies (Xe:VU ratio) in bubbles is high. Detailed atomic-level analysis shows that the pressure-induced distortion of atoms at bubble surface causes additional phonon scattering and thus further reduces the thermal conductivity.
Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury is common. In order to improve our understanding of acute kidney injury, we formed the multi-centre Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Our main goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload, and explore associations with outcomes.
The Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network collaborative includes representatives from paediatric cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery. The collaborative sites and infrastructure are part of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. An acute kidney injury module was developed and merged into the existing infrastructure. A total of twenty-two participating centres provided data on 100–150 consecutive neonates who underwent cardiac surgery within the first 30 post-natal days. Additional acute kidney injury variables were abstracted by chart review and merged with the corresponding record in the quality improvement database. Exclusion criteria included >1 operation in the 7-day study period, pre-operative renal replacement therapy, pre-operative serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl, and need for extracorporeal support in the operating room or within 24 hours after the index operation.
A total of 2240 neonatal patients were enrolled across 22 centres. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 54% (stage 1 = 31%, stage 2 = 13%, and stage 3 = 9%).
Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network represents the largest multi-centre study of neonatal kidney injury. This new network will enhance our understanding of kidney injury and its complications.
We investigated the impact of discontinuation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infected or colonized patients on central-line associated bloodstream infection rates at an academic children’s hospital. Discontinuation of contact precautions with a bundled horizontal infection prevention platform resulted in no adverse impact on CLABSI rates.
This article reports on empirical research undertaken to test the claim made in a law reform project that citizens could be made more certain of their legal obligations by changing the legal paradigm used to express their rights and obligations. Our research tested a number of hypotheses involving different formulations of the claim being made. We find that the alternative paradigm being presented was inferior to current practice and offer some reasons that would explain our results and the significance of this work for other areas of legal research.
Why do issues “fade” from the problem stream? This is an important but underresearched question, which this article examines by looking at the dynamic interaction between frames and frame sponsors. We develop a novel methodological approach that combines algorithmic coding (topic modelling) with hand-coding to track changes in the presence of frames and frame sponsors during periods of intense problematisation (“problem windows”) both within continuous contexts and diachronically across different contexts. We apply this approach empirically in a corpus of newspaper articles that pertain to the coal seam gas controversy in Australia – a divisive policy issue where frame conflicts are common. We find that elite actors have a particularly decisive impact on the problem stream in terms of both the evolution and duration of debate. Further, problem windows close in response to three different mechanisms: elite frame convergence; public statements (by government and industry); and elections.
To investigate the impact of discontinuing contact precautions among patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) on rates of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). DESIGN. Single-center, quasi-experimental study conducted between 2011 and 2016.
We employed an interrupted time series design to evaluate the impact of 7 horizontal infection prevention interventions across intensive care units (ICUs) and hospital wards at an 865-bed urban, academic medical center. These interventions included (1) implementation of a urinary catheter bundle in January 2011, (2) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) perineal care outside ICUs in June 2011, (3) hospital-wide CHG bathing outside of ICUs in March 2012, (4) discontinuation of contact precautions in April 2013 for MRSA and VRE, (5) assessments and feedback with bare below the elbows (BBE) and contact precautions in August 2014, (6) implementation of an ultraviolet-C disinfection robot in March 2015, and (7) 72-hour automatic urinary catheter discontinuation orders in March 2016. Segmented regression modeling was performed to assess the changes in the infection rates attributable to the interventions.
The rate of HAI declined throughout the study period. Infection rates for MRSA and VRE decreased by 1.31 (P=.76) and 6.25 (P=.21) per 100,000 patient days, respectively, and the infection rate decreased by 2.44 per 10,000 patient days (P=.23) for device-associated HAI following discontinuation of contact precautions.
The discontinuation of contact precautions for patients infected or colonized with MRSA or VRE, when combined with horizontal infection prevention measures was not associated with an increased incidence of MRSA and VRE device-associated infections. This approach may represent a safe and cost-effective strategy for managing these patients.
The healthcare environment is recognized as a source for healthcare-acquired infection. Because cleaning practices are often erratic and always intermittent, we hypothesize that continuously antimicrobial surfaces offer superior control of surface bioburden.
To evaluate the impact of a photocatalytic antimicrobial coating at near-patient, high-touch sites in a hospital ward.
The study took place in 2 acute-care wards in a large acute-care hospital.
A titanium dioxide-based photocatalytic coating was sprayed onto 6 surfaces in a 4-bed bay in a ward and compared under normal illumination against the same surfaces in an untreated ward: right and left bed rails, bed control, bedside locker, overbed table, and bed footboard. Using standardized methods, the overall microbial burden and presence of an indicator pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) were assessed biweekly for 12 weeks.
Treated surfaces demonstrated significantly lower microbial burden than control sites, and the difference increased between treated and untreated surfaces during the study. Hygiene failures (>2.5 colony-forming units [CFU]/cm2) increased 2.6% per day for control surfaces (odds ratio [OR], 1.026; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009–1.043; P=.003) but declined 2.5% per day for treated surfaces (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.925–0.977; P<.001). We detected no significant difference between coated and control surfaces regarding S. aureus contamination.
Photocatalytic coatings reduced the bioburden of high-risk surfaces in the healthcare environment. Treated surfaces became steadily cleaner, while untreated surfaces accumulated bioburden. This evaluation encourages a larger-scale investigation to ascertain whether the observed environmental amelioration has an effect on healthcare-acquired infection.
Staff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) is a widespread treatment approach for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability.
To evaluate whether such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour during routine care (trial registration: NCT01680276).
We carried out a multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial involving 23 community intellectual disability services in England, randomly allocated to manual-assisted staff training in PBS (n = 11) or treatment as usual (TAU, n = 12). Data were collected from 246 adult participants.
No treatment effects were found for the primary outcome (challenging behaviour over 12 months, adjusted mean difference = −2.14, 95% CI: −8.79, 4.51) or secondary outcomes.
Staff training in PBS, as applied in this study, did not reduce challenging behaviour. Further research should tackle implementation issues and endeavour to identify other interventions that can reduce challenging behaviour.
For a brief but extraordinarily consequential period from October 1814 to October 1819, Franz Schubert was captivated by the works of Goethe. During that short time span he penned fifty-four of his eventual seventy-two settings of Goethe's poetry. Although those settings represent a variety of genres and draw on a variety of poetic sources, they collectively reveal Schubert's voracious appetite for the work of the poet whose collected works had been released by Cotta's Vienna presses in 1810. Among them the Faust settings have pride of place – not only because they were launched with ‘Gretchen am Spinnrade’ (D 118), the work that is widely considered to have articulated a turning-point in Schubert's approach to song composition and, after it was published in 1821, in the Romantic Lied as a genre, but also because of their deployment of extraordinary musical means to achieve, collectively, unprecedented psychological and dramatic insight into the work that Friedrich Schelling had described as ‘die innerste, reinste Essenz unseres Zeitalters’ [the inmost, purest essence of our age]. As shown in Table 6.1, between October 1814 and May 1817 Schubert completed four settings of texts from that drama and began a fifth. Those four completed settings are the subject of this essay.
Schubert was of course hardly alone in his fascination with the Faust saga. It had been wildly popular since the mid-sixteenth century, when the deeds of one or both of the historical Fausts were first compiled in manuscript by Christoph Rosshirt ca. 1575 and then published (with additions) in a chapbook published in Frankfurt am Main by Johann Spiess in 1587. During the first century and a half after the chapbook's appearance Faust's ill repute spread rapidly, quickly losing its original specifically Protestant moral and becoming a pan-denominational craze in Catholic Europe as well. A new twist was added with the versions that appeared during the late Enlightenment, as those recountings, drawing in part on the commonly encountered interminglings of the Faust and Don Juan legends, frequently introduced what might today be termed a ‘love interest’: now Faust's long-fabled seduction of a conjured Helen of Troy was supplemented or replaced by his reputed wooing of innocent young girls who fell in love beyond their station in life, became pregnant, and often resorted to infanticide.
A mass casualty event can result in an overwhelming number of critically injured pediatric victims that exceeds the available capacity of pediatric critical care (PCC) units, both locally and regionally. To address these gaps, the New York City (NYC) Pediatric Disaster Coalition (PDC) was established. The PDC includes experts in emergency preparedness, critical care, surgery, and emergency medicine from 18 of 25 major NYC PCC-capable hospitals. A PCC surge committee created recommendations for making additional PCC beds available with an emphasis on space, staff, stuff (equipment), and systems. The PDC assisted 15 hospitals in creating PCC surge plans by utilizing template plans and site visits. These plans created an additional 153 potential PCC surge beds. Seven hospitals tested their plans through drills. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the need for planning for disasters involving children and to provide a stepwise, replicable model for establishing a PDC, with one of its primary goals focused on facilitating PCC surge planning. The process we describe for developing a PDC can be replicated to communities of any size, setting, or location. We offer our model as an example for other cities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:473–478)
Chylothorax after paediatric cardiac surgery incurs significant morbidity; however, a detailed understanding that does not rely on single-centre or administrative data is lacking. We described the present clinical epidemiology of postoperative chylothorax and evaluated variation in rates among centres with a multicentre cohort of patients treated in cardiac ICU.
This was a retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical data from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. All postoperative paediatric cardiac surgical patients admitted from October, 2013 to September, 2015 were included. Risk factors for chylothorax and association with outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic or linear regression models, as appropriate, accounting for within-centre clustering using generalised estimating equations.
A total of 4864 surgical hospitalisations from 15 centres were included. Chylothorax occurred in 3.8% (n=185) of hospitalisations. Case-mix-adjusted chylothorax rates varied from 1.5 to 7.6% and were not associated with centre volume. Independent risk factors for chylothorax included age <1 year, non-Caucasian race, single-ventricle physiology, extracardiac anomalies, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and thrombosis associated with an upper-extremity central venous line (all p<0.05). Chylothorax was associated with significantly longer duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, cardiac ICU and hospital length of stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (all p<0.001).
Chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A five-fold variation in chylothorax rates was observed across centres. Future investigations should identify centres most adept at preventing and managing chylothorax and disseminate best practices.
Computerised cognitive–behavioural therapy (cCBT) for depression has the potential to be efficient therapy but engagement is poor in primary care trials.
We tested the benefits of adding telephone support to cCBT.
We compared telephone-facilitated cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 187) to minimally supported cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 182) in a pragmatic randomised trial (trial registration: ISRCTN55310481). Outcomes were depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD)-7) and somatoform complaints (PHQ-15) at 4 and 12 months.
Use of cCBT increased by a factor of between 1.5 and 2 with telephone facilitation. At 4 months PHQ-9 scores were 1.9 points lower (95% CI 0.5–3.3) for telephone-supported cCBT. At 12 months, the results were no longer statistically significant (0.9 PHQ-9 points, 95% CI −0.5 to 2.3). There was improvement in anxiety scores and for somatic complaints.
Telephone facilitation of cCBT improves engagement and expedites depression improvement. The effect was small to moderate and comparable with other low-intensity psychological interventions.