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Behavioral economics is a subfield of behavioral psychology that integrates microeconomic principles with the experimental analysis of behavior. Decades of behavioral economic work have identified two concepts robustly related to issues of risky health decisions and behavioral addictions: discounting and operant demand. Discounting is the phenomenon wherein uncertain or delayed outcomes lose value, often resulting in myopic decisions (e.g., choosing short-term benefits of heroin use over long-term healthy behaviors). Operant demand describes organisms’ persistent efforts to maintain access to reward. Collectively, discounting and demand comprise the reinforcement pathology model of unhealthy behavior, wherein counterproductive discounting and excessive demand coalesce to render risky and unhealthy reward preferences. This reinforcement pathology model may help explain behavioral addictions, issues of dependence, and other behavioral issues. This chapter describes the history of discounting and demand, common behavioral economic tasks to derive indices of discounting and demand, the hypothetical purchasing task, and the range of applications to addictions, novel addictions, and nonaddictive behaviors in the literature, to date.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The purpose of the present study was: (1) to develop a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived body volume (BV) equation with the GE-Lunar prodigy while utilising underwater weighing (UWW) as a criterion and (2) to cross-validate the novel DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXANickerson), Wilson DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXAWilson) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP)-derived BV (4C-ADP) in Hispanic adults. A total of 191 Hispanic adults (18–45 years) participated in the present study. The development sample consisted of 120 females and males (50 % females), whereas the cross-validation sample comprised of forty-one females and thirty males (n 71). Criterion body fat percentage (BF %) and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined using a four-compartment (4C) model with UWW as a criterion for BV (4C-UWW). 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP were compared against 4C-UWW in the cross-validation sample. 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP all produced similar validity statistics when compared with 4C-UWW in Hispanic males (all P > 0·05). 4C-DXANickerson also yielded similar BF % and FFM values as 4C-UWW when evaluating the mean differences (constant error (CE)) in Hispanic females (CE = –0·79 % and 0·38 kg; P = 0·060 and 0·174, respectively). However, 4C-DXAWilson produced significantly different BF % and FFM values (CE = 3·22 % and –2·20 kg, respectively; both P < 0·001). Additionally, 4C-DXAWilson yielded significant proportional bias when estimating BF % (P < 0·001), whereas 4C-ADP produced significant proportional bias for BF % and FFM (both P < 0·05) when evaluated in Hispanic females. The present study findings demonstrate that 4C-DXANickerson is a valid measure of BV in Hispanics and is recommended for use in clinics, where DXA is the main body composition assessment technique.
To integrate electronic clinical decision support tools into clinical practice and to evaluate the impact on indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) use and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).
Design, Setting, and Participants
This 4-phase observational study included all inpatients at a multicampus, academic medical center between 2011 and 2015.
Phase 1 comprised best practices training and standardization of electronic documentation. Phase 2 comprised real-time electronic tracking of IUC duration. In phase 3, a triggered alert reminded clinicians of IUC duration. In phase 4, a new IUC order (1) introduced automated order expiration and (2) required consideration of alternatives and selection of an appropriate indication.
Overall, 2,121 CAUTIs, 179,070 new catheters, 643,055 catheter days, and 2,186 reinsertions occurred in 3·85 million hospitalized patient days during the study period. The CAUTI rate per 10,000 patient days decreased incrementally in each phase from 9·06 in phase 1 to 1·65 in phase 4 (relative risk [RR], 0·182; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·153–0·216; P<·001). New catheters per 1,000 patient days declined from 53·4 in phase 1 to 39·5 in phase 4 (RR, 0·740; 95% CI, 0·730; P<·001), and catheter days per 1,000 patient days decreased from 194·5 in phase 1 to 140·7 in phase 4 (RR, 0·723; 95% CI, 0·719–0·728; P<·001). The reinsertion rate declined from 3·66% in phase 1 to 3·25% in phase 4 (RR, 0·894; 95% CI, 0·834–0·959; P=·0017).
The phased introduction of decision support tools was associated with progressive declines in new catheters, total catheter days, and CAUTIs. Clinical decision support tools offer a viable and scalable intervention to target hospital-wide IUC use and hold promise for other quality improvement initiatives.
School students are increasingly using apps for health-related purposes, either on their own or when recommended by psychologists or counsellors, as apps offer a way to assist students to change their behaviour. However, there is a growing need for psychologists and counsellors to be able to evaluate the quality and usefulness of such apps to effect behaviour change. This study was therefore undertaken to identify methods by which school psychologists and counsellors could evaluate health-related apps for clinical use or research purposes. After examining 15 studies of apps that met the inclusion criteria, it was clear that researchers used a number of taxonomies to evaluate the apps. There were seven taxonomies identified, of which five were generalisable to all health conditions, with the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy being the most comprehensive, containing 13 key behaviour strategies. Despite the utility of the taxonomies to identify the amount of behaviour change content within the apps, it was difficult to determine how the behaviour change strategies were measured, thus reducing the ability to predict app effectiveness. Approaches to improving methods by which apps can be developed and evaluated are proposed.
Governing Medical Knowledge Commons makes three claims: first, evidence matters to innovation policymaking; second, evidence shows that self-governing knowledge commons support effective innovation without prioritizing traditional intellectual property rights; and third, knowledge commons can succeed in the critical fields of medicine and health. The editors' knowledge commons framework adapts Elinor Ostrom's groundbreaking research on natural resource commons to the distinctive attributes of knowledge and information, providing a systematic means for accumulating evidence about how knowledge commons succeed. The editors' previous volume, Governing Knowledge Commons, demonstrated the framework's power through case studies in a diverse range of areas. Governing Medical Knowledge Commons provides fifteen new case studies of knowledge commons in which researchers, medical professionals, and patients generate, improve, and share innovations, offering readers a practical introduction to the knowledge commons framework and a synthesis of conclusions and lessons. The book is also available as Open Access.
Increased temporal and frontal slow-wave delta (1–4 Hz) and theta (4–7
Hz) activities are the most consistent resting-state neural abnormalities
reported in schizophrenia. The frontal lobe is associated with negative
symptoms and cognitive abilities such as attention, with negative
symptoms and impaired attention associated with poor functional
To establish whether frontal dysfunction, as indexed by slowing, would be
associated with functional impairments.
Eyes-closed magnetoencephalography data were collected in 41 participants
with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls, and frequency-domain source
imaging localised delta and theta activity.
Elevated delta and theta activity in right frontal and right
temporoparietal regions was observed in the schizophrenia
v. control group. In schizophrenia, right-frontal
delta activity was uniquely associated with negative but not positive
symptoms. In the full sample, increased right-frontal delta activity
predicted poorer attention and functional capacity.
Our findings suggest that treatment-associated decreases in slow-wave
activity could be accompanied by improved functional outcome and thus
Due to the wide bandgap and other key materials properties of 4H-SiC, SiC MOSFETs
offer performance advantages over competing Si-based power devices. For example,
SiC can more easily be used to fabricate MOSFETs with very high voltage ratings,
and with lower switching losses. Silicon carbide power MOSFET development has
progressed rapidly since the market release of Cree’s 1200V 4H-SiC
power MOSFET in 2011. This is due to continued advancements in SiC substrate
quality, epitaxial growth capabilities, and device processing. For example,
high-quality epitaxial growth of thick, low-doped SiC has enabled the
fabrication of SiC MOSFETs capable of blocking extremely high voltages (up to
15kV); while dopant control for thin highly-doped epitaxial layers has helped
enable low on-resistance 900V SiC MOSFET production. Device design and
processing improvements have resulted in lower MOSFET specific on-resistance for
each successive device generation. SiC MOSFETs have been shown to have a long
device lifetime, based on the results of accelerated lifetime testing, such as
high-temperature reverse-bias (HTRB) stress and time-dependent dielectric
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a catadromous teleost of significant and growing commercial importance, are reported to have limited fatty acid bioconversion capability and therefore require preformed long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) as dietary essential fatty acid (EFA). In this study, the response of juvenile barramundi (47·0 g/fish initial weight) fed isolipidic and isoenergetic diets with 8·2 % added oil was tested. The experimental test diets were either devoid of fish oil (FO), and thus with no n-3 LC-PUFA (FO FREE diet), or with a low inclusion of FO (FO LOW diet). These were compared against a control diet containing only FO (FO CTRL diet) as the added lipid source, over an 8-week period. Interim samples and measurements were taken fortnightly during the trial in order to define the aetiology of the onset and progression of EFA deficiency. After 2 weeks, the fish fed the FO FREE and FO LOW diets had significantly lower live-weights, and after 8 weeks significant differences were detected for all performance parameters. The fish fed the FO FREE diet also had a significantly higher incidence of external abnormalities. The transcription of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was affected after 2 weeks of feeding, showing a rapid nutritional regulation. This experiment documents the aetiology of the onset and the progression of EFA deficiency in juvenile barramundi and demonstrates that such deficiencies can be detected within 2 weeks in juvenile fish.