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This book is a comprehensive manual for policy-makers addressing the issues around human-caused climate change, which threatens communities with increasing extreme weather events, sea level rise and declining habitability of some regions due to desertification or inundation. The book looks at both mitigation of GHG emissions and global warming and adaption to changing conditions as the climate changes. It encourages the early adoption of climate change measures that this can be achieved while maintaining prosperity. The book takes a sector-by-sector approach, starting with energy and includes cities, industry, natural resources, and agriculture, enabling practitioners to focus on actions relevant to their field. It uses case studies across a range of countries, and various industries, to illustrate the opportunities available. Blending technological insights with economics and energy policy, the book presents the tools decision-makers need to achieve rapid decarbonisation, whilst unlocking and maintaining productivity, profit, and growth.
Sleep quantity and quality are associated with executive function (EF) in experimental studies, and in individuals with sleep disorders. With advancing age, sleep quantity and quality decline, as does the ability to perform EF tasks, suggesting that sleep disruption may contribute to age-related EF declines. This cross-sectional cohort study tested the hypothesis that poorer sleep quality (i.e., the frequency and duration of awakenings) and/or quantity may partly account for age-related EF deficits.
Community-dwelling older adults (N = 184) completed actigraphic sleep monitoring then a range of EF tasks. Two EF factors were extracted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Sleep variables did not mediate the relationship between age and EF factors. Post hoc moderated mediation analyses were conducted to test whether cognitive reserve compensates for sleep-related EF deficits, using years of education as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve.
We found a significant interaction between cognitive reserve and the number and frequency of awakenings, explaining a small (approximately 3%), but significant amount of variance in EF. Specifically, in individuals with fewer than 11 years of education, greater sleep disturbance was associated with poorer EF, but sleep did not impact EF in those with more education. There was no association between age and sleep quantity.
This study highlights the role of cognitive reserve in the sleep–EF relationship, suggesting individuals with greater cognitive reserve may be able to counter the impact of disturbed sleep on EF. Therefore, improving sleep may confer some protection against EF deficits in vulnerable older adults.
Multiple herbicide-resistant populations of horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist] continue to spread rapidly throughout Ontario, notably in areas where no-till soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is grown. The occurrence of multiple herbicide resistance within these populations suggests that the future role of herbicide tank mixtures as a means of control will be limited. An integrated weed management strategy utilizing complementary selection pressures is needed to reduce the selection intensity of relying solely on herbicides for control. Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to test the hypothesis: if fall-seeded cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can reduce C. canadensis seedling density and suppress seedling growth, then the interaction(s) of complementary selection pressures of tillage, cereal rye, and herbicides would improve the level of C. canadensis control. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether the allelopathic compound 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) affected the root development of C. canadensis seedlings. The interactions observed among multiple selection pressures of tillage, cereal rye, and herbicides were inconsistent between the 2 yr of study. A monoculture of cereal rye seeded in the fall, however, did reduce seedling height and biomass of C. canadensis consistently, but not density. This reduction in seedling height and biomass was likely caused by the allelopathic compound BOA, which reduced seedling root development. Control of C. canadensis seedlings in the spring required the higher registered rates of dicamba or saflufenacil. The addition of shallow fall tillage and the presence of cereal rye did not improve the variability in control observed notably with 2,4-D or the lower rates of saflufenacil or dicamba. With the implementation of complementary weed management strategies, environmental variables in any given year will likely have a direct influence on whether these interactions are additive or synergistic.
A number of strategies used to regulate positive affect (i.e. dampening and positive rumination) have been identified as having particular relevance to hypomanic personality (a proxy measure of mania risk). However, previous findings have been mixed and it is suggested that this may be the result of lack of consideration of the context in which emotion regulation (ER) is occurring.
This study aimed to investigate (a) if use of specific ER strategies predicts mood across social- and goal-related contexts, and (b) if the relationship between hypomanic personality and mood is moderated by greater use of ER strategies.
One hundred and seventy-four participants (mean age 20.77 years, SD = 2.2) completed an online survey assessing (i) hypomanic personality, (ii) self-reported tendencies to use ER strategies for positive emotion, (iii) tendencies to use these strategies in response to both high- and moderate-intensity positive affect in personally generated social- and goal-related contexts, and (iv) current affect.
Trait use of ER strategies was more predictive of hypomanic personality and mood symptoms than context-specific measures; however, this relationship did not hold up for hypomanic personality and mood symptoms when accounting for current affect. Trait dampening was predictive of low mood symptoms but did not moderate the relationship between hypomanic personality and low mood.
While trait measures of ER were more predictive of mania risk and mood symptoms than context-specific measures, further work is needed using experience sampling methods in order to capture the regulatory processes individuals are using in particular contexts, in real-time.
Chapter 4, “The Merchant,” focuses on the long-distant professional merchants (pochteca) stationed in the Basin of Mexico cities. The chapter examines their goals and attitudes, details their lives on the road and in their home cities, traces their life cycles, and delves into their most pressing problems and the solutions they devised for them.
Chapter 8, “Market Day in Tlatelolco,” takes the reader to the grandest marketplace in the Aztec realm, the market at Tlatelolco. It surveys buyers and sellers and their wares, means of buying and selling, and the use of various types of money, including cacao beans and cotton cloaks.
Chapter 7, “A Child Is Born,” follows a pregnant woman through the birth and naming of her child with the knowledgeable help and intense involvement of a midwife. It continues with a view of childhood by looking at the education, expectations, and punishments of children.
Chapter 10, “A Battle Far Afield,” follows two warriors to a far corner of the Aztec domain as they prepare for, participate in, and return from a ferocious battle with an enemy city-state. The chapter looks at warfare as a way of life, the goals and provocations of the many Aztec wars, the aftermath of these conflicts, and their effects on the warriors and their families.
Chapter 3, “The Featherworker,” explores the lives of these luxury artisans and their families, living as either independent artisans or attached palace artisans in a Basin of Mexico metropolis. This chapter delves into the daily rounds in featherworking household workshops, the obligations and activities of these artisans beyond their households, their life cycles, their most troublesome problems, and their means of solving those problems.
Chapter 5, “The Farmer,” looks at life in a rural village, focusing on farmers and their families. The chapter examines a farming family’s daily round and the life cycles of males and females; it takes these families in and out of trouble, taking into account the different types of farming in the Aztec domain.