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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Mayo Clinic Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) Predoctoral program aims to develop independent researchers capable of leading multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate the translation of discovery to application. Here, we detail the outcomes of our graduates over the past ten years (2010-2019). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION:): A survey was fielded with all CTS graduates whose degrees were conferred since the program’s inception to 2019. Items addressed their current position, whether they were still involved in research, what type of research they were involved in, and whether they stayed involved with education. They also submitted a recent CV, from which data were collected about publications and grants. A subset were then contacted for a semi-structured interview. Items included questions addressing motivation for pursuing a PhD in CTS, whether the program prepared them for their current work, gaps they felt they had in training, and whether they felt they were making a difference in the lives of patients. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 41 alumni, 34 responded (83% response rate). Of these, 19 (56%) are at Mayo Clinic, 9 (26%) work for other academic institutions, and 6 (21%) do not work for an academic institution. Most have remained in research (33/34, 97%). The majority (22/33, 67%) are involved in clinical research, 30% (10/33) in basic science, and 24% (8/33) in healthcare delivery research. Most (23/34, 68%) are engaged in educational activities. When asked about changes they have led, 67% (18/27) led quality improvement projects and 44% (12/27) designed a new research method. Several hold leadership positions either in their organization (12/16, 75%) or in a professional organization (10/16, 63%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTS Predoctoral program successfully prepares scholars for careers involving clinical and translational research; furthermore, alumni remain in research-oriented careers after graduation. We will continue to gather longitudinal data alumni move forward in their careers.
N95 respirators are personal protective equipment most often used to control exposures to infections transmitted via the airborne route. Supplies of N95 respirators can become depleted during pandemics or when otherwise in high demand. In this paper, we offer strategies for optimizing supplies of N95 respirators in health care settings while maximizing the level of protection offered to health care personnel when there is limited supply in the United States during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic. The strategies are intended for use by professionals who manage respiratory protection programs, occupational health services, and infection prevention programs in health care facilities to protect health care personnel from job-related risks of exposure to infectious respiratory illnesses. Consultation with federal, state, and local public health officials is also important. We use the framework of surge capacity and the occupational health and safety hierarchy of controls approach to discuss specific engineering control, administrative control, and personal protective equipment measures that may help in optimizing N95 respirator supplies.
The objective of this study was to describe in the words of child-rearing parents with incurable cancer, what they had gained or thought about as a result of participating in a five-session, scripted, telephone-delivered psycho-educational parenting intervention, the Enhancing Connections Program in Palliative Care.
A total of 26 parents completed the program. Parents’ responses were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and verified for accuracy. The analysis proceeded through four steps: unitizing, coding into categories, defining categories, and formation of a core construct that explained parents’ attributed gains. Trustworthiness of study results was protected by coding to consensus, formal peer debriefing, and maintaining an audit trail.
Although 50% reached or exceeded clinical cutoff scores on anxiety and 42% reached or exceeded clinical cutoff scores on depressed mood, parents extensively elaborated what they gained. Results revealed six categories of competencies they attributed to their participation in the program: (1) being ready for a conversation about my cancer, (2) bringing things out in the open, (3) listening better to my child, (4) getting my child to open up, (5) not getting in my child's way, and (6) changing my parenting.
Despite an extensive symptom burden, parents with incurable cancer attributed major gains from a brief, fully scripted, cancer parenting communication intervention. A manualized telephone-delivered educational counseling program for symptomatic parents with incurable cancer has the potential to augment competencies for parents as they assist their children manage the cancer experience.
Healthcare personnel who perform invasive procedures and are living with HIV or hepatitis B have been required to self-notify the NC state health department since 1992. State coordinated review of HCP utilizes a panel of experts to evaluate transmission risk and recommend infection prevention measures. We describe how this practice balances HCP privacy and patient safety and health.
Vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Most patients are treated with oral vitD capsules (either vitD2 or vitD3). A few studies have reported equal efficacy of buccal spray vitD. This is a new formulation that is absorbed via the oral mucosa into the systemic circulation, bypassing the gastrointestinal route. The main objective of this systematic review was to identify RCT evidence for the comparative effectiveness of buccal spray versus oral vitD on serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD [25-OHD] concentrations and any adverse effects of buccal spray vitD. We have published an a priori protocol using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology (PROSPERO CRD42018118580). A three-step search strategy to identify RCTs was conducted, which reported serum 25-OHD concentrations from five databases from 2008–2018. Retrieved abstracts were screened; included papers imported into JBI SUMARI and assessed for study quality (GRADE) by two authors. Meta-analysis was planned. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Due to heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was not possible. In a RCT crossover study, mean serum 25-OHD concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malabsorption syndrome (n = 20) on 1000IU buccal spray + 117.8%(10.46, 95%CI6.89,14.03ng/ml) vs.1000IU oral vitD3 + 36.02%(3.96, 95%CI2.37, 5.56ng/ml) at 30days (p < 0.0001). Mean serum 25-OHD were also significantly higher in healthy adults (n = 20) on buccal spray + 42.99%(7.995, 95%CI6.86,9.13ng/ml)vs.oral vitD3 + 21.72%(4.06, 95%CI3.41,4.71ng/ml) at 30days (p < 0.0001). In another RCT crossover study, ANCOVA revealed no significant difference in the mean and SD change from baseline total 25-OHD concentrations in adults (n = 22) on 3000IU buccal spray vs. 3000IU oral vitD3 + 44%,26.15 (SD17.85) vs. + 51%,30.38 (SD17.91)nmol/l, respectively;F = 1.044, adjusted r20.493,p = 0.313 at 4 weeks. In a RCT, 800IU buccal spray was equally effective as 750IU oral vitD3 in children with neurodisabilities(n = 24) at 3 months. Both groups had a significant increase in 25-OHD; 11.5 ng/ml(median8–19) to 26.5(13.6–39)ng/ml and 15.5ng/ml(8–20) to 34.5(22–49)ng/ml, respectively (z = 150;p < 0.0001). The overall certainty of evidence was very low to moderate. No adverse effects were reported. The evidence from these studies suggests that 800IU-3000IU doses of buccal spray vitD3 given daily may be an effective alternative as oral vitD3 in obtaining short-term haematological responses in serum 25-OHD concentrations. Buccal spray vitD3 may be a useful alternative for patients with intestinal malabsorption or dysphagia. Future research should compare buccal spray VD3 to intramuscular injections and confirm these findings in well-designed trials.
Are ordinary citizens better at predicting election results than conventional voter intention polls? The authors address this question by comparing eight forecasting models for British general elections: one based on voters' expectations of who will win and seven based on who voters themselves intend to vote for (including ‘uniform national swing model’ and ‘cube rule’ models). The data come from ComRes and Gallup polls as well as the Essex Continuous Monitoring Surveys, 1950–2017, yielding 449 months with both expectation and intention polls. The large sample size permits comparisons of the models' prediction accuracy not just in the months prior to the election, but in the years leading up to it. Vote expectation models outperform vote intention models in predicting both the winning party and parties' seat shares.
Postmortem human brain studies provide the molecular, cellular, and circuitry levels of resolution essential for the development of mechanistically-novel interventions for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. However, the absence of measures of premortem cognitive aptitude in postmortem subjects has presented a major challenge to interpreting the relationship between the severity of neural alterations and cognitive deficits within the same subjects.
To begin addressing this challenge, proxy measures of cognitive aptitude were evaluated in postmortem subjects (N = 507) meeting criteria for schizophrenia, major depressive or bipolar disorder, and unaffected comparison subjects. Specifically, highest levels of educational and occupational attainment of the decedent and their parents were obtained during postmortem psychological autopsies.
Consistent with prior findings in living subjects, subjects with schizophrenia had the lowest educational and occupational attainment relative to all other subject groups, and they also failed to show the generational improvement in attainment observed in all other subject groups.
Educational and occupational attainment data obtained during postmortem psychological autopsies can be used as proxy measures of premortem cognitive function to interrogate the neural substrate of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective observational cohort study.
This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies.
The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites.
To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012–2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models.
The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72–0.93; OR for 2014–2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69–0.95).
These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in the United States and increases risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Identifying modifiable risk factors for NAFLD could allow better targeting of prevention programs. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a significant role in the development and progression of NAFLD. IR is also an important precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the development and duration of IR during young adulthood and its association with NAFLD and T2DM in midlife is unclear. To test whether trajectories of IR using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) change throughout early adulthood are associated with risk of prevalent NAFLD and T2DM among persons with NAFLD in midlife independent of current or baseline HOMA-IR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants from the CARDIA study, a prospective multicenter population-based biracial cohort of adults (baseline age 18–30 years), underwent HOMA-IR measurement (≥8 h fasting and not pregnant) at baseline (1985–1986) and follow-up exam years 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25. At Year 25 (Y25, 2010–2011), liver fat was assessed by noncontrast computed tomography (CT). NAFLD was defined as CT liver attenuation <51 Hounsfield Units after exclusion of other causes of liver fat (alcohol/hepatitis/medications). Latent mixture modeling was used to identify 25-year trajectories in HOMA-IR over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between HOMA-IR trajectory groups and prevalent NAFLD with adjustment for baseline or Y25 HOMA-IR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 3060 participants, we identified 3 distinct trajectory groups for HOMA-IR for individuals free from diabetes in middle adulthood: qualitatively low-stable (46.7% of the cohort), moderate-increasing (42.0%), and high-increasing (11.3%) with a NAFLD prevalence at Y25 of: 8.3%, 33.4%, and 63.5%, respectively (p-trend<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders (baseline smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity score, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and total/HDL cholesterol ratio) and baseline HOMA-IR, increasing HOMA-IR trajectories were associated with greater NAFLD prevalence compared with the low-stable trajectory group [odds ratio (95% CI): 5.8 (4.3–7.9) and 22.3 (14.2–34.9) for moderate and high, respectively]. These associations were attenuated, but remained significant, even after controlling for current Y25 HOMA-IR [OR=3.6 (2.6–5.0) for moderate and 5.9 (3.4–10.3) for high (referent: low)]. Among participants with NAFLD (n=511), high-increasing HOMA-IR trajectory was associated with greater prevalent [OR=6.5 (1.6–25.7)] and incident [OR=8.7 (2.2–34.4)] T2DM at Y25 independent of confounders and Y25 HOMA-IR (referent: low-stable). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this community-based sample of individuals free from diabetes at baseline, an increasing HOMA-IR trajectory through young adulthood was associated with greater NAFLD prevalence in midlife. Knowledge of changes in IR throughout adulthood provides new information on the risk of T2DM among persons with NAFLD in midlife independent of current level of IR. These findings highlight early identification of increasing IR as a potential target for primary prevention of T2DM in the setting of NAFLD.
Mobile text-messaging smoking cessation interventions have demonstrated their efficacy in increasing cessation rates. These interventions tend to be multifaceted and there is a need to specify their building blocks. The purpose of this study was to use the Behavioural Change Techniques Taxonomy V1 (BCTTv1) to systematically analyse the behaviour change techniques present in the SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) adult programme. The entire SFTXT library was coded using the BCTTv1. Frequencies were calculated to assess the presence of BCT groups and unique BCTs in the entire programme. The mix of BCTs was also examined by programme week and during periods of high user dropout. Of the 16 groups of behavioural techniques, 14 were present in SFTXT. Of the 93 distinct BCTs, 41 were present in the full SFTXT message library. The most prevalent BCT groups were Feedback and Monitoring, Natural Consequences, Social Support, and Shaping Knowledge. There were differences in the mix of BCTs across the duration of the intervention. The results will enable us to test how changes in the use of specific BCTs and their frequency of use over time, impact (1) engagement with the programme (particularly during the days with high dropout rates), and (2) smoking cessation outcomes over time.
Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio.
Following Hurricane Katrina and the 2009 H1N1 epidemic, pediatric critical care clinicians recognized the urgent need for a standardized pediatric triage/allocation system. This study collected regional provider opinion on issues of care allocation and pediatric triage in a disaster/pandemic setting.
This study was a cross-sectional survey of United States (US) health care providers and public health workers who demonstrated interest in critical care and/or disaster care medicine by attending a Northwest regional pediatric critical care symposium on disaster preparation, held in 2012 at Seattle Children's Hospital in Seattle, Washington (USA). The survey employed an electronic audience response system and included demographic, ethical, and logistical questions. Differences in opinions between respondents grouped by professions and work locations were evaluated using a chi-square test.
One hundred and twelve (97%) of 116 total attendees responded to at least one question; however, four of these responders failed to answer every question. Sixty-two (55%) responders were nurses, 29 (26%) physicians, and 21 (19%) other occupations. Fifty-five (51%) responders worked in pediatric hospitals vs 53 (49%) in other locations. Sixty-three (58%) of 108 successful responses prioritized children predicted to have a good neuro-cognitive outcome. Seventy-one (68%) agreed that no pediatric age group should be prioritized. Twenty-two (43%) of providers working in non-pediatric hospital locations preferred a triage system based on an objective score alone vs 14 (26%) of those in pediatric hospitals (P = .038).
JohnsonEM, DiekemaDS, Lewis-NewbyM, KingMA. Pediatric Triage and Allocation of Critical Care Resources During Disaster: Northwest Provider Opinion. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-6.
We compare forests dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei at the Dja Biosphere Reserve (Cameroon) with adjacent high-diversity mixed forests in terms of tree-species composition and stand structure, in order to understand the co-occurrence of mixed forest tree species in the monodominant forest. A total of 18 1-ha permanent plots were established in the two forest types. In each plot, all trees with dbh ≥10 cm were identified as were those <10 cm dbh within a subsample of 300 m2. Species richness was significantly different between the two forest types. Mixed forest had an average of 109 species ha−1 for trees ≥10 cm dbh and 137 species for trees <10 cm dbh. By contrast, G. dewevrei-dominated forest had an average of 47 species ha−1 (≥10 cm dbh) and 92 species (<10 cm dbh). There was no significant difference in terms of stem density of the trees with dbh <10 cm between the two forests (mixed: 3.7 stems m−2; monodominant: 3.1 stems m−2). As G. dewevrei is a shade-tolerant species that can regenerate under its own shade, its higher stem density and basal area can reduce species richness of an area.