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In countries around the world, from the United States to the Philippines to Chile, police forces are at the center of social unrest and debates about democracy and rule of law. This book examines the persistence of authoritarian policing in Latin America to explain why police violence and malfeasance remain pervasive decades after democratization. It also examines the conditions under which reform can occur. Drawing on rich comparative analysis and evidence from Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia, the book opens up the 'black box' of police bureaucracies to show how police forces exert power and cultivate relationships with politicians, as well as how social inequality impedes change. González shows that authoritarian policing persists not in spite of democracy but in part because of democratic processes and public demand. When societal preferences over the distribution of security and coercion are fragmented along existing social cleavages, politicians possess few incentives to enact reform.
To what do we ascribe the far-reaching success of companies from emerging economies in domestic and global markets? What do emerging markets companies do differently? This chapter studies and provides a comparison of the cases of seven successful Colombian companies in different industries to identify specific attributes and capabilities that have helped these firms to overcome the liabilities associated with being situated in emerging markets, enabling them to become market leaders domestically or internationally. The findings of this study suggest that the most relevant capabilities for the success of these companies are their ability to obtain resources, their product adaptation capabilities, and their understanding of local consumers’ needs.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Functional impairment is a defining feature of psychotic disorders. A range of factors has been shown to influence functioning, including negative symptoms, cognitive performance and cognitive reserve (CR). However, it is not clear how these variables may affect functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. This 2-year follow-up study aimed to explore the possible mediating effects of CR on the relationship between cognitive performance or specific clinical symptoms and functional outcome.
A prospective study of non-affective FEP patients was performed (211 at baseline and 139 at follow-up). CR was entered in a path analysis model as potential mediators between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning.
At baseline, the relationship between clinical variables or cognitive performance and functioning was not mediated by CR. At follow-up, the effect of attention (p = 0.003) and negative symptoms (p = 0.012) assessed at baseline on functioning was partially mediated by CR (p = 0.032 and 0.016), whereas the relationship between verbal memory (p = 0.057) and functioning was mediated by CR (p = 0.014). Verbal memory and positive and total subscales of PANSS assessed at follow-up were partially mediated by CR and the effect of working memory on functioning was totally mediated by CR.
Our results showed the influence of CR in mediating the relationship between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning in FEP. In particular, CR partially mediated the relationship between some cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Therefore, CR could improve our understanding of the long-term functioning of patients with a non-affective FEP.
One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
In this work, a new method to determine and correct the linear drift for any crystalline orientation in a single-column-resolved high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) image, which is based on angle measurements in the Fourier space, is presented. This proposal supposes a generalization and the improvement of a previous work that needs the presence of two symmetrical planes in the crystalline orientation to be applicable. Now, a mathematical derivation of the drift effect on two families of asymmetric planes in the reciprocal space is inferred. However, though it was not possible to find an analytical solution for all conditions, a simple formula was derived to calculate the drift effect that is exact for three specific rotation angles. Taking this into account, an iterative algorithm based on successive rotation/drift correction steps is devised to remove drift distortions in HR-STEM images. The procedure has been evaluated using a simulated micrograph of a monoclinic material in an orientation where all the reciprocal lattice vectors are different. The algorithm only needs four iterations to resolve a 15° drift angle in the image.
This article describes the criteria for identifying the focus of negation in Spanish. This work involved an in-depth linguistic analysis of the focus of negation through which we identified some 10 different types of criteria that account for a wide variety of constructions containing negation. These criteria account for all the cases that appear in the NewsCom corpus and were assessed in the annotation of this corpus. The NewsCom corpus consists of 2955 comments posted in response to 18 different news articles from online newspapers. The NewsCom corpus contains 2965 negative structures with their corresponding negation marker, scope, and focus. This is the first corpus annotated with focus in Spanish and it is freely available. It is a valuable resource that can be used both for the training and evaluation of systems that aim to automatically detect the scope and focus of negation and for the linguistic analysis of negation grounded in real data.
We present our recent experience with a 6-month-old infant with a personal history of short bowel syndrome that presented with fever, cyanosis, and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure without pulmonary thromboembolism. He did not present signs of toxin-mediated disease or Kawasaki disease. He was finally diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. If this presentation is confirmed in future research, the severe cardiovascular impairment in children with COVID-19 could be also attributable to the primary pulmonary infection, not only to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome but also in children without heart disease.
Strong property rights tend to be considered a crucial condition for almost all that is good, including economic growth, peace, state capacity, even democracy. However, not all types of property rights institutions are considered capable of achieving these purposes. It is often assumed or argued that property rights – or at least the right kind of property rights – are liberal ownership rights, which can only be held by individuals, are transferable and allocable only through market forces, and are secure from state expropriation or intervention.
In this chapter, we chronicle the “activation” (Levitsky and Murillo 2014) of individual property rights in Mexico, driven by liberal ideology and enabled by increased state capacity, with indigenous groups resisting the elimination of their collective rights and wealthy landowners (hacendados) pushing to turn the process to their advantage through biased enforcement.
Catholicism and Protestantism have different ways of promoting the family unit that could influence survival and fertility at a population level. Parish records in the Austrian village of Hallstatt allowed the reconstruction of Catholic and Protestant genealogies over a period of 175 years (1733–1908) to evaluate how religion and social changes affected reproduction and survival. Life history traits such as lifespan beyond 15 years, number of offspring, reproductive span, children born out of wedlock and child mortality were estimated in 5678 Catholic and 3282 Protestant individuals. The interaction of sex, time and religion was checked through non-parametric factorial ANOVAs. Religion and time showed statistically significant interactions with lifespan >15 years, number of offspring and age at birth of first child. Protestants lived longer, had a larger reproductive span and an earlier age at birth of first child. Before the famine crisis of 1845–1850, Protestants showed lower values of childhood mortality than Catholics. Comparison of the number of children born out of wedlock revealed small differences between the two religions. Religion influenced reproduction and survival, as significant differences were found between Catholics and Protestants. This influence could be explained in part by differential socioeconomic characteristics, since Protestants may have enjoyed better living and sanitary conditions in Hallstatt.
This paper gathers information on the diet of the people of Montevideo. It puts forward some hypotheses regarding the caloric intake of the plebeian and non-elite social groups, introduces two Laspeyres indexes of food prices for Montevideo in 1760-1810, analyses the movements of food prices in Montevideo in this period and compares the case of Montevideo with neighbouring cities.
The present review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body’s advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALE) pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body’s AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, the body’s AGE/ALE pool and to achieve sustainable nutrition and health.
We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic on code stroke activations in the emergency department, stroke unit admissions, and referrals to the stroke prevention clinic at London’s regional stroke center, serving a population of 1.8 million in Ontario, Canada. We found a 20% drop in the number of code strokes in 2020 compared to 2019, immediately after the first cases of COVID-19 were officially confirmed. There were no changes in the number of stroke admissions and there was a 22% decrease in the number of clinic referrals, only after the provincial lockdown. Our findings suggest that the decrease in code strokes was mainly driven by patient-related factors such as fear to be exposed to the SARS-CoV-2, while the reduction in clinic referrals was largely explained by hospital policies and the Government lockdown.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neurogenesis and in the protection against oxidative damage and neuronal apoptosis. After exercise, there is an increased expression of this myokine, especially in skeletal muscle and brain. Low BDNF levels have been described in neurodegenerative diseases. Alcoholics show both muscle atrophy and brain atrophy. Thus, this study was performed in order to analyze serum BDNF levels among alcoholics and their associations with brain atrophy and muscle strength.
Serum BDNF values were determined to 82 male alcoholics and 27 age-matched controls, and compared with handgrip strength, with the presence of brain atrophy, assessed by computed tomography, and with the intensity of alcoholism and liver function derangement.
BDNF levels and handgrip strength were significantly lower among patients. Handgrip strength was correlated with BDNF values, both in the whole population and in alcoholics, especially in patients over 59 years of age. BDNF was poorly related to liver dysfunction but showed no relationship with brain atrophy or age.
Chronic alcoholics show decreased BDNF serum levels that are related to muscle function impairment rather than to age, brain atrophy, liver dysfunction, or the amount of ethanol consumed.
The objective was to evaluate maternal Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern adherence during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. A secondary objective of the current study was to describe the sociodemographic, lifestyle and obstetric profile of the mothers studied as well as the most relevant paternal and newborn characteristics.
The current study is a two-phase retrospective population-based study of maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and their effect on newborn size and prematurity. The descriptive first phase examined maternal dietary habits during pregnancy along with the maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and obstetric profile in a cross-sectional period study. In the second phase, newborn outcomes were evaluated in a nested case–control study. Adherence to MD during pregnancy was measured with the Spanish version of Kidmed index.
Obstetrics ward of the La Fe Hospital in Valencia.
All mother–child pairs admitted after delivery during a 12-month period starting from January 2018 were assessed for eligibility. A total of 1118 provided complete outcome data after signing informed consent.
14·5 % met the criteria of poor adherence (PA); 34·8 %, medium adherence (MA); and 50·7 %, optimal adherence (OA). Medium adherence to MD was associated in the adjusted scenarios with a higher risk of giving birth to a preterm newborn. No association was found between MD adherence and SGA.
Early intervention programmes geared towards pregnant women, where women were aided in reaching OA to MD, might reduce the risk of preterm newborn.
A website was designed to offer psychoeducation and advice to women who demand more information about health after traditional visit to GPs. A total of 564 patients visited the website in three months. Women asked for information and interacted with different topics on the platform. Only the women who completed all the form (age, previous diseases, current treatment) were analyzed. A total of 226 e-patients were included.
The most demanded information was about: excess weight, fibromyalgia, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and the menopause although other topics related to medicine such as HTA, breast cancer, and pregnancy were part of the website contents.
Even when many topics about medicine were available on the website, women were more interested in, and showed the need for information about mental health.
Online psychoeducation could help the clinician to save time at the personal consultation and could be especially useful in following the patient for a long time.
However, there are technological barriers and at least one first face-to-face interview is required in complicated cases to determine a correct diagnosis.
A high demand for e-mental online health education does exist. It would be useful for professionals to be trained in information technology in order to cover that demand and avoid misinforming patients.
It would be interesting to undertake a meta-analysis with all the studies around the world and determine the profile of the patient that could be helped through online attention.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
As a consequence of axenic growth and the elimination of accompanying bacterial flora, Entamoeba histolytica virulence decreases rapidly, and pathogenicity is lost. This paper evaluated the impact of vitamin supplementation on the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. Growth of E. histolytica trophozoites, cultured axenically in PEHPS (a Spanish acronym for the main ingredients – casein peptone, liver, pancreas extract and bovine serum) medium, with or without vitamins, exhibited a similar growth rate. However, the vitamin-enriched PEHPS preparations expressed 2.65 times more haemolytic activity (at 60 min: 98 vs 48%, P < 0.05), 2.5 times more phospholipase A2 activity at 150 min of incubation and generated more hepatic abscesses (88 vs 60%, P = 0.05) than the preparations without vitamins. The haemolytic and phospholipase A2 activity for the PEHPS − V preparations were restored following vitamin supplementation with A and D. These data highlight, for the first time, that vitamins and specifically vitamin A and D were essential for the recovery of amoebic virulence, lost through axenic growth.