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To investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentration in a multi-ethnic population of northern Norway and determine predictors of S-25(OH)D, including Sami ethnicity.
Cross-sectional data from the second survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, 2012–2014). S-25(OH)D was measured by the IDS-iSYS 25-Hydroxy Vitamin Dˢ assay. Daily dietary intake was assessed using an FFQ. BMI was calculated using weight and height measurements.
Ten municipalities of northern Norway (latitude 68°–70°N).
Males (n 2041) and females (n 2424) aged 40–69 years.
Mean S-25(OH)D in the study sample was 64·0 nmol/l and median vitamin D intake was 10·3 µg/d. The prevalence of S-25(OH)D<30 nmol/l was 1·9 % and <50 nmol/l was 24·7 %. In sex-specific multivariable linear regression models, older age, blood sample collection in September–October, solarium use, sunbathing holiday, higher alcohol intake (in females), use of cod-liver oil/fish oil supplements, use of vitamin/mineral supplements and higher intakes of vitamin D were significantly associated with higher S-25(OH)D, whereas being a current smoker and obesity were associated with lower S-25(OH)D. These factors explained 21–23 % of the variation in S-25(OH)D.
There were many modifiable risk factors related to S-25(OH)D, however no clear ethnic differences were found. Even in winter, the low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency found among participants with non-Sami, multi-ethnic Sami and Sami self-perceived ethnicity was likely due to adequate vitamin D intake.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
To estimate current food intake in the population of northern Norway and to investigate the impact of self-perceived Sami ethnicity and region of residence on food intake.
The data are part of the second cross-sectional survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations (the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, 2012–2014). Food intake was assessed by an FFQ. Ethnic and regional differences in food intake were studied by sex-specific, multivariable-adjusted quantile regression models.
Ten municipalities (rural northern Norway).
Males (n 2054) and females (n 2450) aged 40–69 years (2743 non-Sami, 622 multi-ethnic Sami, 1139 Sami).
The diet of Sami participants contained more reindeer meat, moose meat, food made with animal blood and freshwater fish; and contained less lean fish and vegetables. In the inland region, the consumption of reindeer meat was greatest in Sami participants, followed by multi-ethnic Sami participants and non-Sami participants, who had the lowest consumption (median 25, 12 and 8 g/d, respectively). Compared with the inland region, fish roe/liver intake was higher in the coastal region and lean fish intake was twice as high (41 and 32 g/d in males and females, respectively).
When compared with non-Sami participants, those with solely self-perceived Sami ethnicity reported a significantly different intake of several foods, especially reindeer meat in the inland region. Multi-ethnic Sami tended to have similar diets to non-Sami. Residence in the coastal region predicted higher fish and roe/liver intake.
The present study aimed to investigate disordered eating (DE) among Sami compared with non-Sami residing in northern Norway.
In a cross-sectional design, stratified by sex and ethnicity, associations were tested between DE (Eating Disturbance Scale; EDS-5) and age, education level, BMI category, anxiety and depression, physical activity and consumption of snacks.
The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012–2014) based on the population of ten municipalities in northern Norway.
Adults aged 40–69 years; 1811 Sami (844 male, 967 female) compared with 2578 non-Sami (1180 male, 1398 female) individuals.
No overall significant ethnic difference in DE was identified, although comfort eating was reported more often by Sami individuals (P=0·01). Regardless of ethnicity and sex, symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with DE (P<0·001). Furthermore, DE was more common at lower age and higher BMI values. Education levels were protectively associated with DE among Sami men (P=0·01). DE was associated (OR, 95% CI) with low physical activity in men in general and in non-Sami women (Sami men: 2·4, 1·4, 4·0; non-Sami men: 2·2, 1·4, 3·6; non-Sami women: 1·8, 1·2, 2·9) and so was the consumption of snacks (Sami men: 2·6, 1·3, 5·0; non-Sami men: 1·9, 1·1, 3·1; non-Sami women: 2·1, 1·3, 3·4).
There were no significant differences regarding overall DE comparing Sami with non-Sami, although Sami more often reported comfort eating. There were significant sex and ethnic differences related to DE and physical activity, snacking and education level.
We evaluated the association between serum ferritin (s-ferritin), transferrin saturation and dietary patterns, in connection with ethnicity, geographical settlement and lifestyle factors.
In 2003–2004, a cross-sectional study of health and living conditions was carried out in northern Norway.
A questionnaire explored, among other factors, ethnicity and food consumption habits. Principal component analysis was used to assess the association between variables. Seven principal components were then used as input to a cluster analysis. To characterise food consumptions, five dietary patterns were identified and used to assess the effect of food consumption habits on Fe stores.
A total of 16 323 men and women between the ages of 36 and 79 years participated.
Participants who frequently consumed reindeer meat had higher levels of s-ferritin (P < 0·0001) than did individuals with other dietary patterns. This pattern was highly represented by subjects with three generations of Sami language (Sami I). Further, mean transferrin saturation in the reindeer group was higher compared with the other dietary clusters for men (P < 0·04) and women (P < 0·02). However, the reindeer pattern individuals also had the highest proportion of subjects with overweight and obesity. Obesity was positively associated with s-ferritin in both men and women (P < 0·0001).
The differences in Fe status described earlier between inland Sami and non-Sami can be explained by several factors such as food habits, age and obesity. High level of s-ferritin may reflect high intake of reindeer meat. Being overweight and obese is also associated with s-ferritin levels.
To assess coffee consumption in the Sami and Norwegian populations and to investigate the impact of unfiltered boiled coffee consumption on serum cholesterol concentrations.
A cross-sectional study. Information was collected by self-administrated questionnaires and total serum cholesterol was analysed. Participants were divided into three ethnic groups: Sami I (Sami used as home language in the last three generations), Sami II (at least one Sami identity marker) and Norwegian.
In an area with Sami, Kven/Finnish and Norwegian populations, the SAMINOR study, 2003–2004.
A total of 5647 men and 6347 women aged 36–79 years.
More than 90 % of the study populations were coffee drinkers. Only 22 % were unfiltered coffee consumers. Sami I had the highest proportion of participants who consumed nine or more cups of unfiltered coffee per day, although the number of participants was limited. Total coffee consumption was associated with increased total cholesterol for men (P < 0·01) and women (P < 0·0001). For those who drank only unfiltered coffee, a significant association was found only in Norwegian men, adjusted for physical activity in leisure time, BMI and smoking habits (P < 0·001). From the lowest (less than five cups) to the highest (nine or more cups) unfiltered coffee consumption category, the mean total cholesterol levels increased by 0·29 mmol/l in Norwegian men.
Unfiltered coffee consumption was lower in the present study compared to previous reports. In general, total coffee consumption was positively associated with total cholesterol levels. However, for unfiltered coffee consumption, an association was found only in Norwegian men.
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