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Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital heart defect. We report an infant with a mixed form of supracardiac TAPVC, in whom all pulmonary veins, except the right upper, entered a pulmonary venous confluence that is connected to a vertical vein and drained into the superior vena caval–right atrial junction. Several segmental right upper pulmonary veins entered the superior vena cava, superior to the entry of the vertical vein. Surgical repair consisted of the Warden procedure combined with direct anastomosis of the vertical vein to the left atrium. Separate pulmonary venous drainage pathways decreased the risk of post-operative pulmonary venous obstruction. Our patient had an uneventful post-operative course and encouraging 2-month follow-up echocardiography. Careful follow-up is warranted to detect post-operative complications, including obstruction of the pulmonary venous and cavoatrial anastomoses.
We evaluated whether memory recall following an extended (1 week) delay predicts cognitive and brain structural trajectories in older adults.
Clinically normal older adults (52–92 years old) were followed longitudinally for up to 8 years after completing a memory paradigm at baseline [Story Recall Test (SRT)] that assessed delayed recall at 30 min and 1 week. Subsets of the cohort underwent neuroimaging (N = 134, mean age = 75) and neuropsychological testing (N = 178–207, mean ages = 74–76) at annual study visits occurring approximately 15–18 months apart. Mixed-effects regression models evaluated if baseline SRT performance predicted longitudinal changes in gray matter volumes and cognitive composite scores, controlling for demographics.
Worse SRT 1-week recall was associated with more precipitous rates of longitudinal decline in medial temporal lobe volumes (p = .037), episodic memory (p = .003), and executive functioning (p = .011), but not occipital lobe or total gray matter volumes (demonstrating neuroanatomical specificity; p > .58). By contrast, SRT 30-min recall was only associated with longitudinal decline in executive functioning (p = .044).
Memory paradigms that capture longer-term recall may be particularly sensitive to age-related medial temporal lobe changes and neurodegenerative disease trajectories.
Background: Detection of unusual carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) in a healthcare facility may signify broader regional spread. During investigation of a VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-CRPA) outbreak in a long-term acute-care hospital in central Florida, enhanced surveillance identified VIM-CRPA from multiple facilities, denoting potential regional emergence. We evaluated infection control and performed screening for CPOs in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) across the region to identify potential CPO reservoirs and improve practices. Methods: All SNFs in 2 central Florida counties were offered a facility-wide point-prevalence survey (PPS) for CPOs and a nonregulatory infection control consultation. PPSs were conducted using a PCR-based screening method; specimens with a carbapenemase gene detected were cultured to identify the organisms. Infection control assessments focused on direct observations of hand hygiene (HH), environmental cleaning, and the sink splash zone. Thoroughness of environmental cleaning was evaluated using fluorescent markers applied to 6 standardized high-touch surfaces in at least 2 rooms per facility. Results: Overall, 21 (48%) SNFs in the 2-county region participated; 18 conducted PPS. Bed size ranged from 40 to 391, 5 (24%) facilities were ventilator-capable SNFs (vSNFs), and 12 had short-stay inpatient rehabilitation units. Of 1,338 residents approached, 649 agreed to rectal screening, and 14 (2.2%) carried CPOs. CPO-colonized residents were from the ventilator-capable units of 3 vSNFs (KPC-CRE=7; KPC-CRPA=1) and from short-stay units of 2 additional facilities (VIM-CRPA, n = 5; KPC-CRE, n = 1). Among the 5 facilities where CPO colonization was identified, the prevalence ranged from 1.1% in a short-stay unit to 16.1% in a ventilator unit. All facilities had access to soap and water in resident bathrooms; 14 (67%) had alcohol-based hand rubs accessible. Overall, mean facility HH adherence was 52% (range, 37%–66%; mean observations per facility = 106) (Fig. 1). We observed the use of non–EPA-registered disinfectants and cross contamination from dirty to clean areas during environmental cleaning; the overall surface cleaning rate was 46% (n = 178 rooms); only 1 room had all 6 markers removed. Resident supplies were frequently stored in the sink splash zone. Conclusions: A regional assessment conducted in response to emergence of VIM-CRPA identified a relatively low CPO prevalence at participating SNFs; CPOs were primarily identified in vSNFs and among short-stay residents. Across facilities, we observed low adherence to core infection control practices that could facilitate spread of CPOs and other resistant organisms. In this region, targeting ventilator and short-stay units of SNFs for surveillance and infection control efforts may have the greatest prevention impact.
Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.
This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.
From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.
Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest in, or ability to experience pleasure from, common rewarding stimuli – is implicated in addictive behaviors. Integrative reviews of extant research on the role of anhedonia in understanding addictive behaviors are dated and overlook nonsubstance addictions. This chapter reviews the anhedonia construct, describes theoretical models of mechanisms linking anhedonia to addiction, summarizes and synthesizes the empirical evidence on anhedonia in addictive behaviors in humans, and proposes future research directions. From the literature review and integration, it is concluded that: (1) anhedonia may be a risk factor and consequence of addictive behaviors, (2) anhedonia may increase motivation to engage in addictive behaviors to offset deficient pleasure, and (3) anhedonia is generally correlated with onset, escalation, persistence, and relapse to a variety of addictive behaviors in prior research. Addictive agents, intervention applications, and other topics overlooked in the study of anhedonia in addictive behaviors warrant further inquiry to advance addiction science and practice.
Despite the great interest to quantify the structure of host–parasite interaction networks, the real influence of some factors such as taxonomy, host body size and ecological opportunity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the general patterns of organization and structure of interactions in two anuran–parasite networks in the Brazilian Pantanal (seasonally flooded environment) and Atlantic Forest (non-flooded forest). We present theoretical models to test whether the structures of these host–parasite interaction networks are influenced by neutrality, host taxonomy and host body size. Subsequently, we calculated metrics of connectance, nestedness and modularity to characterize the network structure. We demonstrated the structure networks were influenced mainly by body size and taxonomy of the host. Moreover, our results showed that the seasonally flooded environment present networks with higher connectance/nestedness and lower modularity compared to the other environment. The results also suggest that seasonal floods may promote ecological opportunities for new species associations.
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), vision loss (VL), and dual sensory loss (DSL) in Canadians 45–85 years of age. Audiometry and visual acuity were measured. Various levels of impairment severity were described. Results were extrapolated to the 2016 Canadian population. In 2016, 1,500,000 Canadian males 45–85 years of age had at least mild HL, 1,800,000 had at least mild VL, and 570,000 had DSL. Among females, 1,200,000 had at least mild HL, 2,200,000 had at least mild VL, and 450,000 had DSL. Among Canadians 45–85 years of age, mild, moderate, and severe HL was prevalent among 13.4 per cent, 3.7 per cent, and 0.4 per cent of males, and among 11.3 per cent, 2.3 per cent, and 0.2 per cent of females, respectively. Mild and moderate, or severe VL was prevalent among 19.8 per cent and 2.4 per cent of males, and among 23.9 per cent and 2.6 per cent of females, respectively. At least mild DSL was prevalent among 6.4 per cent of males and 6.1 per cent of females.
Idiopathic dilatation of the right atrium is an isolated enlargement of the right atrium in the absence of other cardiac lesions. This rare anomaly has a clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to heart failure or even sudden death. It can be associated with atrial arrhythmias and thrombus formation. Antiplatelet therapy is prescribed in most cases reported in the literature, and reduction plasty is indicated when there is rapid growth of the right atrium, compression of adjacent structures, or refractory arrhythmias. We report four cases of idiopathic dilatation of the right atrium diagnosed during prenatal screening. We describe the intrauterine course and management in postnatal life until early childhood.
Characterizing non-lethal damage within dry seeds may allow us to detect early signs of ageing and accurately predict longevity. We compared RNA degradation and viability loss in seeds exposed to stressful conditions to quantify relationships between degradation rates and stress intensity or duration. We subjected recently harvested (‘fresh’) ‘Williams 82’ soya bean seeds to moisture, temperature and oxidative stresses, and measured time to 50% viability (P50) and rate of RNA degradation, the former using standard germination assays and the latter using RNA Integrity Number (RIN). RIN values from fresh seeds were also compared with those from accessions of the same cultivar harvested in the 1980s and 1990s and stored in the refrigerator (5°C), freezer (−18°C) or in vapour above liquid nitrogen (−176°C). Rates of viability loss (P50−1) and RNA degradation (RIN⋅d−1) were highly correlated in soya bean seeds that were exposed to a broad range of temperatures [holding relative humidity (RH) constant at about 30%]. However, the correlation weakened when fresh seeds were maintained at high RH (holding temperature constant at 35°C) or exposed to oxidizing agents. Both P50−1 and RIN⋅d−1 parameters exhibited breaks in Arrhenius behaviour near 50°C, suggesting that constrained molecular mobility regulates degradation kinetics of dry systems. We conclude that the kinetics of ageing reactions at RH near 30% can be simulated by temperatures up to 50°C and that RNA degradation can indicate ageing prior to and independent of seed death.
La prévalence du syndrome métabolique est nettement plus élevée chez les patients schizophrènes que dans la population générale, pouvant atteindre 41 % . Par ailleurs, il est responsable d’un risque cardiovasculaire accru  ainsi que d’une augmentation du risque de diabète de type 2. Ainsi, la mortalité totale est deux à trois fois plus élevée chez les personnes souffrant de schizophrénie .
Obtenir une prévalence du syndrome métabolique dans une population de schizophrènes suivis en ambulatoires et évaluer la qualité de l’identification de ce syndrome ainsi que de sa prise en charge.
Des patients schizophrènes, sous antipsychotiques depuis au moins 3 mois, ont été inclus lors d’une première consultation par leur psychiatre traitant dans le cadre de leur suivi habituel. Des mesures comprenant un bilan biologique (HDLc, glycémie, triglycérides…), la passation d’un entretien diagnostique structuré (le MINI), des mesures cliniques (tension artérielle, tour de taille, etc) ont été réalisées. Les patients ont été revus lors d’une seconde consultation par leur psychiatre traitant avec les résultats du bilan biologique. Enfin, nous avons effectué une hétéro-évaluation des pratiques professionnelles.
Vingt et un patients ont été inclus dans l’étude, 3 ont été perdus de vue. La prévalence du syndrome métabolique s’élève à 38,9 %. Par ailleurs, 22,2 % des sujets répondent à 2 critères de la définition du syndrome métabolique. Seulement 42,9 % des syndromes métaboliques étaient bien identifiés par les psychiatres. L’action la plus fréquemment mise en place était les règles hygiéno-diététiques (71,4 % chez les patients avec syndrome métabolique). Enfin, aucun patient ne bénéficiait d’un suivi tensionnel et très peu d’un suivi du bilan biologique (28,6 % chez les sujets avec syndrome métabolique et 54,5 % chez les sujets sans syndrome métabolique).
La schizophrénie reste une pathologie invalidante malgré une prise en charge médicamenteuse efficace. Il importe de développer d’autres stratégies adjuvantes efficaces sur les symptômes de la maladie en limitant les effets secondaires des traitements pharmacologiques. L’efficacité des activités physiques dans le traitement de la schizophrénie n’est pas démontrée mais des travaux soulignent des bénéfices sur les symptômes négatifs et dépressifs [1,2].
Nous souhaitons évaluer l’impact clinique d’un programme d’activité physique sur une population de sujets atteints de schizophrénie.
Un programme d’activités physiques supervisé par deux moniteurs a été élaboré. Il comprend une heure de multi-activités, 2 fois par semaine, pendant 12 semaines. L’intensité minimale de chaque séance était fixée à 50 % de la fréquence cardiaque de réserve. Des mesures comprenant les échelles PANSS, SANS, SAPS, CDSS, S-QoL, un bilan anthropométrique et biologique ont été réalisés à S 0, S 6, S 12 et S 16.
Deux groupes de 5 patients (n = 10) ont réalisé le programme. Une amélioration clinique est retrouvée sur l’ensemble des échelles utilisées entre S 0 et S 16. Les changements observés ne sont pas en faveur d’une amélioration du syndrome métabolique et nous notons une prise de poids des sujets sur la période de l’étude. Le traitement statistique des données présente des résultats non significatifs (p > 0,05).
Female and male alcohol dependent patients present an inhomogeneous group regarding to the drinking outcome. Stress, as well as stress-coping-styles are relevant predictive factors for the progress of alcohol dependence.
Social data, data of drinking behaviour, stress-styles and cortisol concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 130 patients with alcohol dependence (35F and 95M) before and after inpatient treatment.
The age of onset alcohol dependence, the amount of alcohol consumption since last 3 months, the responsibility for education from children, living situation, and the practice of positive ore negative stress coping styles were investigated.
Female alcohol dependent patients show a significant higher age of onset for alcohol dependence (p=0.02) and have a significant lower consumption of alcohol in relation to male alcohol dependent patients (p=0.004).
Moreover, female alcohol dependent patients are significant more frequent involved in education of children (p=0.04), and are living significant less alone (p=0.023).
The cortisol levels in plasma and CSF between female and male alcohol dependent patients does not differ. However, female alcoholics show a significant higher score of negative stress-coping styles than male alcoholics (p= 0.023).
There are significant psychosocial differences between female and male alcohol dependent patients. These gender specific differences relating to social stressors and handling with stress may be clinical relevant for treatment and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.
Half or more of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from co-occurring alcohol use disorder and/or drug use disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the development of substance use disorders (SUD) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the long-term course.
175 patients with BPD and 396 patients with other personality disorders (OPD) were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months. They were compared on the frequency of new onsets of SUD. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to to generate time to new onsets, and Cox regression analyses were used to examine relevant predictors for new onsets.
BPD patients did show a shorter time to new onsets of SUD than the OPD group. Thirteen percent of BPD patients developed a new alcohol use disorder, and 11% developed a new drug use disorder, as compared to rates of 6% and 4% respectively for OPD. The number of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) criteria predicted new onsets of SUD in BPD.
Patients with BPD have a two to three times higher risk than patients with selected other personality disorders of developing a new SUD. The severity of antisocial psychopathology is related to new onsets of substance use disorder in BPD. These findings support the concept of a spectrum relationship between ASPD, BPD and SUD.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an important treatment in conjunction with psychopharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. However, there is only very little research on the effects of such interventions on brain function.
Recent studies have suggested that jumping to conclusions and a specific attributional bias is a predominant cognitive style in patients which might lead to the development of delusions. In this multi-centre fMRI trial, we investigated the effect of nine months of CBT on neural correlates of “jumping to conclusions” and the “attributional style” in patients with psychosis. Eighty patients and 80 control subjects were recruited in six centres and measured with 3-Tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) before and after CBT.
It could be shown that CBT ameliorates differences in brain activations between patients and controls after nine months.
These results support the feasibility of fMRI multicenter trials and sheds further light into the mechanisms relating psychotherapy to brain function in Schizophrenia.
There is evidence that patients with persecutory delusions tend to attribute excessively hypothetical positive events to internal causes and hypothetical negative events to external causes, arrive at hasty conclusions and fail in gathering and assessing adequate feedback, particularly when emotionally salient material is involved. Research on the neural correlates of the corresponding neural correlates and even more so on the potential effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the associated cerebral networks is almost unavailable.
The first and preliminary results of a multicentre fMRI study will be presented.
In this study eighty schizophrenia patients from the POSITIVE clinical trial and eighty healthy subjects were recruited at six German university hospitals (Bonn, Duisburg-Essen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, Tubingen). After nine months of therapy (either with CBT or Supportive Therapy) patients and controls were re-examined enabling the study correlates of cerebral reorganization processes.
We found reliable differences in brain activation relating to phenomena of decision making under uncertainty, and biased attribution (self- vs. external reference of emotional events).
The comparison of both groups revealed significant decreased activation in key areas for decision making, self-reflection, self-relevance and agency attribution of patients with schizophrenia.
The preliminary data analysis of the still blinded treatment arms shows significantly increased activations in these areas after nine months of CBT. This suggest neuroplasitic changes according to relearning strategies in psychotic patients with schizophrenia and will hopefully give rise to a more widespread application of CBT in treatment of schizophrenia.
Drug dependence is defined as a chronic relapsing brain disorder that is defined by a compulsion to seek and use drugs despite negative consequences. Drug-related cues and stress are known to be key factors for drug use. It has been argued that drug use could be seen as self-medication in patients with drug dependence and co-occurring personality disorders. However, the relevance of co-occurring personality disorders for stress reactivity after drug use is not clear.
Thirty drug-dependent patients on stable opioid maintenance treatment with and without personality disorders were examined in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate the effects of diacetylmorphine (DAM = heroin) on stress reactivity. They were compared with 20 healthy volunteers receiving saline. The drug-dependent patients administered either their individual prescribed DAM dose or saline. Afterwards they completed four emotional tasks while brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Before and after the fMRI investigation, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, DAM blood levels, and psychological stress parameters, such as anxiety, anger, and craving were measured.
The findings of DAM effects on stress reactivity in patients with drug dependence and co-occurring personality disorders will be reported and clinical implications regarding specific psychosocial interventions will be discussed.