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Altered levels of phenylalanine and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have previously been reported in schizophrenia. This study attempted to examine whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using the 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PBT).
Subjects were 20 patients with schizophrenia and the same number of controls. 13C-phenylalanine was administered and then 13CO2 concentration in breath was monitored for 120 minutes. The Δ 13CO2 at each collecting time, the maximal Δ 13CO2 (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (Tmax), the area under the curve of time course of Δ13CO2 (AUC), the cumulative recovery rate (CRR) at each collecting time of the 13C-PBT were calculated for each subject.
Body weight (BW) and diagnostic status were significant predictors for Cmax. BW, age and diagnostic status were significant predictors for AUC and CRR at 120 minutes (CRR0-120). A repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for age and BW revealed a different pattern of change in CRR over time between the patients and controls and that Δ13CO2 in schizophrenia were lower than that in healthy control at all sampling point during 120 min, with an overall significant differences between healthy control and schizophrenia. The ANCOVA controlling for age and BW, showed that Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 were significantly lower in schizophrenics than in controls.
Our data indicate the different change of Δ13CO2 and CRR over time and the decreased Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 of 13C-PBT in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting the altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia.
Public health checkups are conducted on 3-year-old children in Japan. However, it is often difficult to detect or provide ongoing support to children with developmental disorders without MR. Therefore we have conducted health checkups on 5 year olds.
The objectives are to describe the results and follow-up of health checkups in 5-year-old children and examine the utility of such checkups.
The aims are to make clear the utility of health checkups in 5-year-old children for screening for developmental disorders.
The subjects were 303 children of 5-year-old that lived in Kanie-cho and participated in health checkups. in the checkups, a child psychiatrist examined the children, and made a provisional diagnosis of a developmental disorder.
Eighty-two children were provisionally diagnosed as having developmental disorders. the follow-up allowed final diagnosis of developmental disorders (suspect diagnosis included) to be made in 39 children (12.9%), and pinpointed 19 children with ADHD, 9 children with PDD, 9 children with mild MR, and 2 children with motor skills disorder.
All children with PDD had already been informed about the possible occurrence of developmental disorders at 3 years of age. However, most of ADHD, mild MR, and motor function disorder were diagnosed in these children during the checkups at the age of 5 years.
The health checkup in 5-year-old children is useful not only as a tool to detect developmental disorders that are difficult to diagnose at the age of 3 years but also as an approach in patients lost to follow-up.
Children with Learning Disorders (LD) are susceptible to decreased self-esteem and willingness because of their difficulty learning, which can lead to exacerbation of the learning difficulty in a vicious cycle. Appropriate learning supports may help not only in terms of learning, but also psychologically.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effect of learning supports for children with LD.
The aims are to make clear that psychological changes occur for children by the learning supports.
We conducted 10 learning support sessions for 12 children (age 8–11 years) diagnosed as LD. Afterward, we gave a questionnaire on motivation and self-efficacy in learning to the children and their parents, and a questionnaire on positive participation in class to the children's teachers.
The children's responses showed increased intrinsic motivation with high autonomy, and decreased extrinsic motivation with low autonomy and self-efficacy after supports. the parents’ responses indicated increased self-efficacy and decreased motivation overall after supports, while the teachers’ responses indicated increased positive class participation after supports.
Parents and teachers see that willingness for learning improve through learning supports, but the children themselves feel decreased efficacy. At the same time, the children came to have more autonomous intrinsic motivation for learning. Both of motivation and willigness increased through learning supports, but conversely the children came to notice their own weaknesses (true abilities), which is thought to have led to decreased self-efficacy. with continuing support improvement of true efficacy may be expected.
We present studies of a protocluster at z =2.5, an overdense region found close to a radio galaxy, 4C 23.56, using ALMA. We observed 1.1 mm continuum, two CO lines (CO (4–3) and CO (3–2)) and the lower atomic carbon line transition ([CI](3P1-3P0)) at a few kpc (0″.3-0″.9) resolution. The primary targets are 25 star-forming galaxies selected as Hα emitters (HAEs) that are identified with a narrow band filter. These are massive galaxies with stellar masses of > 1010Mʘ that are mostly on the galaxy main sequence at z =2.5. We measure the molecular gas mass from the independent gas tracers of 1.1 mm, CO (3–2) and [CI], and investigate the gas kinematics of galaxies from CO (4–3). Molecular gas masses from the different measurements are consistent with each other for detection, with a gas fraction (fgas = Mgas/(Mgas+ Mstar)) of ≃ 0.5 on average but with a caveat. On the other hand, the CO line widths of the protocluster galaxies are typically broader by ˜50% compared to field galaxies, which can be attributed to more frequent, unresolved gas-rich mergers and/or smaller sizes than field galaxies, supported by our high-resolution images and a kinematic model fit of one of the galaxies. We discuss the expected scenario of galaxy evolution in protoclusters at high redshift but future large surveys are needed to get a more general view.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The brush-clawed shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi is a native species from the Western Pacific and an invader of the European Atlantic coast from northern Spain to southern Denmark. Despite the increasing concern about its rapid expansion, little is known about the early stages in its life history. In the present study, the larval morphology of H. takanoi is described and illustrated from specimens obtained in the laboratory from its type locality, Tokyo Bay, Japan. Its larval development follows the pattern of Varunidae, that involves five zoeae and one megalopa. The morphological characters of the larvae of H. takanoi are compared with those of the other known Hemigrapsus species of the North Pacific. In addition, to facilitate an early detection of the invasive species of Varunidae inhabiting European Atlantic waters, a summary of the key characters to identify their larval stages is included.
Growth mixture modeling with a sample of 749 Mexican heritage families identified parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their mothers’ heritage cultural values and parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their fathers’ heritage cultural values from Grades 5 to 10. Parallel trajectory profiles were then used to test cultural gap-distress theory that predicts increased parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology over time when adolescents become less aligned with Mexican heritage values compared to their parents. Six similar parallel profiles were identified for the mother–youth and father–youth dyads, but only one of the six was consistent with the hypothesized problem gap pattern in which adolescents’ values were declining over time to become more discrepant from their parents. When compared to families in the other trajectory groups as a whole, mothers in the mother–adolescent problem gap trajectory group reported higher levels of mother–adolescent conflict in the 10th grade that accounted for subsequent increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms assessed in 12th grade. Although the findings provided some support for cultural gap-distress predictions, they were not replicated with adolescent report of conflict nor with the father–adolescent trajectory group analyses. Exploratory pairwise comparisons between all six mother–adolescent trajectory groups revealed additional differences that qualified and extended these findings.
It is thought that protoplanets formed in protoplanetary disks excite the orbital motion of the surrounding planetesimals, and the bow shocks caused by the highly excited planetesimals heat their icy component evaporating into gas. We have performed model calculations to study the evolution of molecular abundances of the evaporated icy component, which suggests sulfur-bearing molecules can be good tracers of icy planetesimal evaporation. Here we report the result of our ALMA observations of sulfur-bearing molecules towards protoplanetary disks. The lines were undetected but the obtained upper limits of the line fluxes and our model calculations give upper limits of the fractional abundances of x(H2S) < 10−11 and x(SO) < 10−10 in the outer disk. These results are consistent with the molecular abundances in comets in our Solar system.
Few democratic countries have lower rates of female political representation than Japan, making it an excellent place to seek clues for female underrepresentation. We were surprised to find, based on three experimental surveys, that Japanese voters do not harbor particularly negative attitudes toward female politicians. The problem instead appears to be that women are reluctant to run for office because of socially mandated family roles. An implication of our study is that gender equality in political representation will likely founder in countries with electoral systems that require around-the-clock constituency service and legislative work, at least until citizens no longer have gendered expectations about time-consuming family obligations.
The “Stop the Bleed” campaign advocates for non-medical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control. However, it is not clear what type of education or the duration of instruction needed to meet that requirement. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a brief hemorrhage control educational curriculum on the willingness of laypersons to respond during a traumatic emergency.
This “Stop the Bleed” education initiative was conducted by the University of Texas Health San Antonio Office of the Medical Director (San Antonio, Texas USA) between September 2016 and March 2017. Individuals with formal medical certification were excluded from this analysis. Trainers used a pre-event questionnaire to assess participants knowledge and attitudes about tourniquets and responding to traumatic emergencies. Each training course included an individual evaluation of tourniquet placement, 20 minutes of didactic instruction on hemorrhage control techniques, and hands-on instruction with tourniquet application on both adult and child mannequins. The primary outcome in this study was the willingness to use a tourniquet in response to a traumatic medical emergency.
Of 236 participants, 218 met the eligibility criteria. When initially asked if they would use a tourniquet in real life, 64.2% (140/218) responded “Yes.” Following training, 95.6% (194/203) of participants responded that they would use a tourniquet in real life. When participants were asked about their comfort level with using a tourniquet in real life, there was a statistically significant improvement between their initial response and their response post training (2.5 versus 4.0, based on 5-point Likert scale; P<.001).
In this hemorrhage control education study, it was found that a short educational intervention can improve laypersons’ self-efficacy and reported willingness to use a tourniquet in an emergency. Identified barriers to act should be addressed when designing future hemorrhage control public health education campaigns. Community education should continue to be a priority of the “Stop the Bleed” campaign.
RossEM, RedmanTT, MappJG, BrownDJ, TanakaK, CooleyCW, KharodCU, WamplerDA. Stop the Bleed: The Effect of Hemorrhage Control Education on Laypersons’ Willingness to Respond During a Traumatic Medical Emergency. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):127–132.
Oxoammonium cation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used as an oxidizing dopant of triaryl amines to efficiently and almost quantitatively generate radical cations of the amines or a hole carrier. The doped-triaryl amines yielded an amorphous and homogeneous layer without any residual oxidant or neutral TEMPO molecule through its sublimination or warming the layer. The TEMPO cation-doped spiro-OMeTAD [tetrakis(dimethoxyphenylamine)spirobifluorene] produced a high hole mobility of 2 × 10−4 cm2/Vs. The perovskite solar cell fabricated with the TEMPO cation-doped or residual dopant-free spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting layer displayed a photo-conversion efficiency of 20.1% with durability.
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) can be found year-round in tropical region and causes severe damage to rice. Although there has been documented BPH damage to rice crops in the past decade in Cambodia, the extent of this epidemic is poorly understood. Here, we examined the time variation of BPH population in the abundance of morphotypes in 13 main rice-producing provinces (86 sites) by aspirator method and in the Takeo Province (five sites) by yellow sticky trap method. At least three generations were observed during the 3-month collection period in the rainy growing season. Regarding the occurrence of BPH morphotypes, in July the macropterous adults were restricted to south Cambodia and in August all morphotypes, adults (macropterous and brachypterous) and nymphs, appeared in all sampling sites. To explain the difference of regional distribution, the genetic differentiation was analyzed in south and northwest Cambodia (three sites) by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis via genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) using next-generation sequencing. The 2455 SNPs obtained by GBS clarified the three sub-populations and they corresponded to the expected dissemination patterns. These results provide a clue to understand the differentiation and epidemic of BPH in Cambodia.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
We investigate the relation between the emission properties of supernova shock breakout in the circumstellar matter (CSM) and the behavior of the shock. Using a Monte-Carlo method, we examine how the light curve and spectrum depends on the asphericity of the shock and bulk-Compton scattering, and compare the results with the observed properties of X-ray outburst (XRO) 080109/SN 2008D. We found that the rise and decay time of the X-ray light curve do not significantly depend on the degree of shock asphericity and the viewing angle in a steady and spherically symmetric CSM. The observed X-light curve and spectrum of XRO 080109 can be reproduced by considering the shock with a radial velocity of 60% of the speed of light, and the wind mass loss rate is about 5 × 10−4M⊙.
Silicified beyrichiocopid and podocopid ostracods from limestone nodules derived from the middle part of the Ichinotani Formation within the Hida Gaien Terrane of central Honshu Island, Japan, are associated with fusulinid foraminifera that indicate strata of the middle Moscovian (Pennsylvanian, Carboniferous). This is a rare record of ostracods from the Palaeozoic of Japan and the first systematic description of ostracods from the Carboniferous of the Hida Gaien Terrane. The fauna comprises six ostracod species (two new) assigned to the genera Amphissites, Kirkbya, Bairdia, Aechmina and Healdia, and additional material of possible cavellinids. The numerical dominance of ornamented beyrichiocopids such as Kirkbya and Amphissites, along with smaller numbers of smooth podocopids such as Bairdia, indicates an ‘Eifelian mega-assemblage’ ecotype (sensu G. Becker), that is typical of mid Palaeozoic shallow marine, high-energy environments in a fore-reef ecosystem.
We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission “bridge” connecting the +20 km s−1 cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s−1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.
High-velocity compact cloud (HVCC) is a peculiar category of molecular clouds detected in the central molecular zone of our Galaxy (Oka et al. 1998, 2007, and 2012). They are characterized by compact appearances (d < 5 pc) and very large velocity widths (Δ V > 50 km s−1). Some of them show high CO J=3–2/J=1–0 intensity ratios (≥ 1.5), indicating that they consist of dense and warm molecular gas. Dispite a number of efforts, we have not reached a comprehensive interpretation of HVCCs. Recently, we detected an extraordinaly broad velocity width feature, the ‘Bullet’, in the molecular cloud interacting with the W44 supernova remnant. The Bullet shares essential properties with HVCCs. Because of its proximity, a close inspection of the Bullet must contribute to the understanding of HVCCs.
Atomic carbon (C0) is one of the most abundant carbon-bearing species in the interstellar molecular gas, and its submillimeter lines are good tracers of low-density molecular clouds which are often dark in CO rotational lines. We present a new map of the central 150 pc region of the Milky Way in the 500 GHz [CI] line, which has been recently obtained with the ASTE 10-m telescope. The [CI] emission is brightest toward the central 5-pc region, where massive GMCs are absent. This [CI]-bright region is approximately centered toward Sgr A*, covering the entire circum-nuclear ring (CND) and the western part of the 50-km/s cloud. The C0/CO abundance ratio is 0.5–2 there, and the highest ratio is observed toward the CND but just outside of the 2-pc ring of dense gas. This discovery may suggest that the CO-dark component occupies a significant fraction of the molecular gas in the circumnuclear region.