Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Intergenerational gaps in Mexican American values trajectories: Associations with parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology

  • Nancy A. Gonzales (a1), George P. Knight (a1), Heather J. Gunn (a1), Jenn-Yun Tein (a1), Rika Tanaka (a2) and Rebecca M. B. White (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

Growth mixture modeling with a sample of 749 Mexican heritage families identified parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their mothers’ heritage cultural values and parallel trajectories of adolescents’ and their fathers’ heritage cultural values from Grades 5 to 10. Parallel trajectory profiles were then used to test cultural gap-distress theory that predicts increased parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology over time when adolescents become less aligned with Mexican heritage values compared to their parents. Six similar parallel profiles were identified for the mother–youth and father–youth dyads, but only one of the six was consistent with the hypothesized problem gap pattern in which adolescents’ values were declining over time to become more discrepant from their parents. When compared to families in the other trajectory groups as a whole, mothers in the mother–adolescent problem gap trajectory group reported higher levels of mother–adolescent conflict in the 10th grade that accounted for subsequent increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms assessed in 12th grade. Although the findings provided some support for cultural gap-distress predictions, they were not replicated with adolescent report of conflict nor with the father–adolescent trajectory group analyses. Exploratory pairwise comparisons between all six mother–adolescent trajectory groups revealed additional differences that qualified and extended these findings.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Nancy A. Gonzales, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, 950 S McAllister Ave, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104; E-mail: nancy.gonzales@asu.edu.

Footnotes

Hide All

This research was supported, in part, by NIMH Grant MH68920 (Culture, Context, and Mexican American Mental Health). The authors are thankful for the support of Mark W. Roosa, Marisela Torres, Leticia Gelhard, Jaimee Virgo, our Community Advisory Board and interviewers, and the families who participated in the study.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2013). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: A 3-step approach using Mplus. Retrieved from https://statmodel.com/examples/webnotes/AuxMixture_submitted_corrected_webnote
Atzaba-Poria, N., & Pike, A. (2007). The costs of getting ahead: Mexican family system changes after immigration. Family Relations, 25, 527541. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2007.00439.x
Bámaca-Colbert, M. Y., & Gayles, J. (2010). Variable-centered and person-centered approaches to studying Mexican-origin mother-daughter cultural orientation dissonance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 12741292. doi:10.1007/s10964-009-9447-3
Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In Padilla, A. (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and findings (pp. 925). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Berry, J. W. (2006). Acculturation: A conceptual overview. In Bornstein, M. H. & Cote, L. R. (Eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 1330). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Birman, D. (2006). Measurement of the “acculturation gap” in immigrant families and implications for parent-child relationships. In Bornstein, M. H. & Cote, L. R. (Eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 113134). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Birman, D., & Trickett, E. J. (2001). Cultural transitions in first-generation immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents and parents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 456477. doi:10.1177/0022022101032004006
Bornstein, M. H. (2002). Handbook of parenting: Vol. 5. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cano, M. A., Schwartz, S. J., Castillo, L. G., Unger, J. B., Huang, S., Zamboanga, B. L., … Szapocznik, J. (2016). Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 254265. doi:10.1037/fam0000142
Causadias, J. M. (2013). A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4, Pt. 2), 13751398. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000679
Causadias, J. M., Vitriol, J. A., & Atkin, A. L. (2018). Do we overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities? Evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias in American Psychology. American Psychologist, 73, 243255. doi:10.1037/amp0000099
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464504. doi:10.1080/10705510701301834
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2009). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600. doi:10.1017/S0954579400007318
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Corona, M., McCarty, C., Cauce, A. M., Robins, R. W., Widaman, K. F., & Conger, R. D. (2012). The relation between maternal and child depression in Mexican American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 34, 539556. doi:10.1177/0739986312455160
Costigan, C. L., & Dokis, D. P. (2006). Relations between parent-child acculturation differences and adjustment within immigrant Chinese families. Child Development, 77, 12521267. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00932.x
Ella, D., David, S., Anna, M., Maya, B. W., Klaus, B., & Ariel, K. (2012). Value differentiation in adolescence: The role of age and cultural complexity. Child Development, 83, 322336. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01694.x
Fan, X. (2001). Statistical significance and effect size in education research: Two sides of a coin. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 275282. doi:10.1080/00220670109598763
Farver, J. M., Narang, S. K., & Bhadha, B. R. (2002). East meets west: Ethnic identity, acculturation, and conflict in Asian Indian families. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 338350. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.16.3.338
Fridrich, A. H., & Flannery, D. J. (1995). The effects of ethnicity and acculturation on early adolescent delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 4, 6987. doi:10.1007/bf02233955
Germán, M., Gonzales, N. A., & Dumka, L. E. (2009). Families values as a protective factor for Mexican-origin adolescents exposed to deviant peers. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 1642. doi:10.1177/0272431608324475
Gil, A. G., Vega, W. A., & Dimas, J. M. (1994). Acculturative stress and personal adjustment among Hispanic adolescent boys. Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 4354. doi:10.1002/1520-6629(199401)22:1<43:AID-JCOP2290220106>3.0.CO;2-T
Gonzales, N. A., Deardorff, J., Formoso, D., Barr, A., & Barrera, M. (2006). Family mediators of the relation between acculturation and adolescent mental health. Family Relations, 55, 318330. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00405.x
Gonzales, N. A., Germán, M., & Fabrett, F. C. (2012). U.S. Latino youth. In Chang, E. C. & Downey, C. A. (Eds.), Handbook of race and development in mental health (pp. 259278). New York: Springer.
Gonzales, N. A., Germán, M., Kim, S. Y., George, P. E., Fabrett, F. C., Millsap, R., & Dumka, L. E. (2008). Mexican American adolescents' cultural orientation, externalizing behavior and academic engagement: The role of traditional cultural values. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 151164. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9152-x
Gonzales, N. A., Jensen, M., Montano, Z., & Wynne, H. (2015). The Cultural Adaptation and Mental Health of Mexican American Adolescents. In Y.M. Caldera & E. Lindsey (Eds.), Handbook of Mexican American Children and Families: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford, UK: Routledge.
Heilemann, M., Frutos, L., Lee, K., & Kury, F. S. (2004). Protective strength factors, resources, and risks in relation to depressive symptoms among childbearing women of Mexican descent. Health Care for Women International, 25, 88106. doi:10.1080/07399330490253265
Ho, J., & Birman, D. (2010). Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 2233. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.10.002
Hox, J. (2002). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Juang, L. P., Syed, M., & Takagi, M. (2007). Intergenerational discrepancies of parental control among Chinese American families: Links to family conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 965975. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.01.004
Knight, G. P., Basilio, C. D., Cham, H., Gonzales, N. A., Liu, Y., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2014). Trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 20122027. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9983-8
Knight, G. P., Carlo, G., Mahrer, N. E., & Davis, A. N. (2016). The socialization of culturally related values and prosocial tendencies among Mexican-American adolescents. Child Development, 87, 17581771. doi:10.1111/cdev.12634.
Knight, G. P., Gonzales, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., Germán, M., Deardorff, J., … Updegraff, K. A. (2010). The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for adolescents and adults. Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 444481. doi:10.1177/0272431609338178
Knight, G. P., Jacobson, R. P., Gonzales, N. A., Roosa, M. W., & Saenz, D. S. (2009). Evaluation of the psychological research on acculturation and enculturation processes among recently immigrating populations. In Dalla, R. L., DeFrain, J., Johnson, J., & Abbot, D. (Eds.), Strengths and challenges of new immigrant families: Implications for research, policy, education, and service (pp. 931). Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Knight, G. P., Vargas-Chanes, D., Losoya, S. H., Cota-Robles, S., Chassin, L., & Lee, J. M. (2009). Acculturation and enculturation trajectories among Mexican-American adolescent offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 625653. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00614.x
Konner, M. (2010). The evolution of childhood: Relationships, emotion, and mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lau, A. S., McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M., Garland, A. F., Wood, P. A., & Hough, R. L. (2005). The acculturation gap-distress hypothesis among high-risk Mexican American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 367375. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.19.3.367
Laursen, B., Coy, K. C., & Collins, W. A. (1998). Reconsidering changes in parent-child conflict across adolescence: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 69, 817832. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06245.x
Liebkind, K. (1996). Acculturation and stress: Vietnamese refugees in Finland. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27, 161180. doi:10.1177/0022022196272002
Lim, S.-L., Yeh, M., Liang, J., Lau, A. S., & McCabe, K. (2008). Acculturation gap, intergenerational conflict, parenting style, and youth distress in immigrant Chinese American families. Marriage & Family Review, 45, 84106. doi:10.1080/01494920802537530
Liu, L. L., Benner, A. D., Lau, A. S., & Kim, S. Y. (2009). Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 572586. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9358-8
Martinez, C. R. (2006). Effects of differential family acculturation on Latino adolescent substance use. Family Relations, 55, 306317. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00404.x
Matsunaga, M., Hecht, M. L., Elek, E., & Ndiaye, K. (2010). Ethnic identity development and acculturation: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican-heritage youth in the Southwest United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 410427. doi:10.1177/0022022109359689
Muthén, B. (2005). Negative residual variance. Retrieved from http://www.statmodel.com/discussion/messages/11/555.html?1516972542
Muthén, B. O. (2004). Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In Kaplan, D. (Ed.), Handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2014). Mplus user's guide. (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Nguyen, N. A., & Williams, H. L. (1989). Transition from East to West: Vietnamese adolescents and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 505515. doi:10.1097/00004583-198907000-00007
Padilla, J., McHale, S. M., Rovine, M. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2016). Parent-youth differences in familism values from adolescence into young adulthood: Developmental course and links with parent-youth conflict. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 24172430. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0518-y
Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents. Child Development, 77, 14031415. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00943.x
Pasch, L. A., Deardorff, J., Tschann, J. M., Flores, E., Penilla, C., & Pantoja, P. (2006). Acculturation, parent-adolescent conflict, and adolescent adjustment in Mexican American families. Family Process, 45, 7586. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00081.x
Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499514. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499
Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2002). Adolescent-parent disagreements and life satisfaction in families from Vietnamese- and European-American backgrounds. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 556561. doi:10.1080/01650250143000544
Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1996). Immigrant America: A portrait (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). The forging of a new America: Lessons from theory and policy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Roosa, M. W., Liu, F., Torres, M., Gonzales, N. A., Knight, G., & Saenz, D. (2008). Sampling and recruitment in studies of cultural influences on adjustment: A case study with Mexican Americans. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 293302. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.22.2.293
Sabogal, F., Marín, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., Marín, B. V., & Perez-Stable, E. J. (1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 397412. doi:10.1177/07399863870094003
Sam, D. L., & Virta, E. (2003). Intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and host-national families and their impact on psychological adaptation. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 213231. doi:10.1016/S0140-1971(02)00129-X
Schofield, T. J., Parke, R. D., Kim, Y., & Coltrane, S. (2008). Bridging the acculturation gap: Parent-child relationship quality as a moderator in Mexican American families. Developmental Psychology, 44, 11901194. doi:10.1037/a0012529
Schwartz, S. J., Des Rosiers, S., Huang, S., Zamboanga, B. L., Unger, J. B., Knight, G. P., … Szapocznik, J. (2013). Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: Associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior. Child Development, 84, 13551372. doi:10.1111/cdev.12047
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation. American Psychologist, 65, 237251. doi:10.1037/a0019330
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 2838. doi:10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014
Smokowski, P. R., Rose, R., & Bacallao, M. L. (2008). Acculturation and Latino family processes: How cultural involvement, biculturalism, and acculturation gaps influence family dynamics. Family Relations, 57, 295308. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00501.x
Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity: Opportunities for theory, research, and application. American Psychologist, 48, 400407. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.400
Szapocznik, J., Santisteban, D., Kurtines, W., Perez-Vidal, A., & Hervis, O. (1984). Bicultural effectiveness training: A treatment intervention for enhancing intercultural adjustment in Cuban American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6, 317344. doi:10.1177/07399863840064001
Tardif, C. Y., & Geva, E. (2006). The link between acculturation disparity and conflict among Chinese Canadian immigrant mother-adolescent dyads. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 191211. doi:10.1177/0022022105284496
Tein, J. Y., Coxe, S., & Cham, H. (2013). Statistical power to detect the correct number of classes in latent profile analysis. Structure Equation Modeling, 20, 640657. doi:10.1080/10705511.2013.824781
Telzer, E. H. (2010). Expanding the acculturation gap-distress model: An integrative review of research. Human Development, 53, 313340. doi:10.1159/000322476
Telzer, E. H., Gonzales, N., & Fuligni, A. J. (2014). Family obligation values and family assistance behaviors: Protective and risk factors for Mexican-American adolescents’ substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 270283. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9941-5
Tsai, K. M., Telzer, E. H., Gonzales, N. A., & Fuligni, A. J. (2015). Parental cultural socialization of Mexican-American adolescents’ family obligation values and behaviors. Child Development, 86, 12411252. doi:10.1111/cdev.12358
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Gonzales-Backen, M. A., & Guimond, A. B. (2009). Latino adolescents’ ethnic identity: Is there a developmental progression and does growth in ethnic identity predict growth in self-esteem? Child Development, 80, 391405. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01267.x
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Quintana, S. M., Lee, R. M., Cross, W. E., Rivas-Drake, D., Schwartz, S. J., … Seaton, E. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: An integrated conceptualization. Child Development, 85, 2139. doi:10.1111/cdev.12196
Vargas, D. A., Roosa, M. W., Knight, G. P., & O'Donnell, M. (2013). Family and cultural processes linking family instability to Mexican American adolescent adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 387397. doi:10.1037/a0032863
Vega, W. A., Khoury, E. L., Zimmerman, R. S., Gil, A. G., & Warheit, G. J. (1995). Cultural conflicts and problem behaviors of Latino adolescents in home and school environments. Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 167179. doi:10.1002/1520-6629(199504)23:2<167::AID-JCOP2290230207>3.0.CO;2-O
Wang, Y., Kim, S. Y., Anderson, E. R., Chen, A. C.-C., & Yan, N. (2012). Parent-child acculturation discrepancy, perceived parental knowledge, peer deviance, and adolescent delinquency in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 907919. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9705-z
Weaver, S. R., & Kim, S. Y. (2008). A person-centered approach to studying the linkages among parent–child differences in cultural orientation, supportive parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 3649. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9221-3
West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies. In Hoyle, R. (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Issues and applications (pp. 5675). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
White, R. M. B., Roosa, M. W., Weaver, S., & Nair, R. L. (2009). Cultural and contextual influences on parenting in Mexican American families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 6179. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00580.x
Yoon, E., Chang, C.-T., Kim, S., Clawson, A., Cleary, S. E., Hansen, M., … Gomes, A. M. (2013). A meta-analysis of acculturation/enculturation and mental health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 1530. doi:10.1037/a0030652
Zayas, L. H., & Bryant, C. (1984). Culturally sensitive treatment of adolescent Puerto Rican girls and their families. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 1, 235253. doi:10.1007/BF00778686
Zeiders, K. H., Updegraff, K. A., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Wheeler, L. A., Perez-Brena, N. J., & Rodríguez, S. A. (2013). Mexican-origin youths’ trajectories of depressive symptoms: The role of familism values. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 648654. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.06.008

Intergenerational gaps in Mexican American values trajectories: Associations with parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent psychopathology

  • Nancy A. Gonzales (a1), George P. Knight (a1), Heather J. Gunn (a1), Jenn-Yun Tein (a1), Rika Tanaka (a2) and Rebecca M. B. White (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A correction has been issued for this article: